CQout Online Auctions CQout Online Auctions Home register to sell and buy at CQout! read our Frequently Asked Questions buy at CQout!sell at CQout! services for CQout registered users search for items or usernames at CQout
Click to enlarge image
Click to enlarge image
Keyword Filter
Advanced Search
Seller ID Filter
Category Filter
Aircrafts & Aviation
Badges & Patches
Bottles & Cans
Cigarette, Tea & Gum Cards
Clocks & Watches
Coins & Notes
Decorative Ornaments
Disney, Cartoons & Characters
Dolls & Figures
Electronics & Engineering
Military, Police & Services
Motor Racing
Motoring & Transport
Novelty Items
Phone Cards
Post Cards
Posters & Prints
Pottery, China & Porcelain
Radio, TV & Theatre
Rocks, Minerals, Crystals & Fossils
Science Fiction
Scientific & Industrial
Sewing, Thimbles
Swords & Daggers
Teddy Bears, Beanies
Tools & Hardware
Trading Cards
Vintage Computers, Calculators
World Wars I & II
Writing Instruments
Other Collectables

This Listing has ended

Item Title:

RARE 1919 KN PENNY Coin Kings Norton Mint Royal King George V English

Auction has received no bidsThis auction was closed early by the seller.

View Full Details

See seller's other current items (Offered By: rlhydra)
See similar items currently listed (Category:



Novelty Items


Qty: 1 Current Time: 18 Oct 17 21:18:55
Offered By: rlhydra (0|2) 
Time & Date displayed is for United States - EDT
Start Price: £14.99   ($19.91) (no reserve)Learn More about Reserves & Starting Prices Auction Length: Learn more about Instant Buy
Scheduled Close Date: 04 Aug 2016 16:26:12Learn More about closing times
Actual Close Date: 11 Jul 2016 15:16:58
Postage: FREE Bids Received: 0
Item Location : Salford
Seller Location: United Kingdom
Sell to: Worldwide
Integrated Online Payment Options:  
Payment using EasyPay
I Accepted payment using SecurePay
Lot #  18504267

This item had been viewed 3496 times before closing
View Full Details
View Picture
Check out these other items

A Year of Creative Games for Couples

x3 27.99 ($37.17)Instant Buy

AMAZING Apple-like Notepad. Look REAL. Ideal for Gift and Decoration

x5 2.50 ($3.32)Instant Buy

AMAZING iphone-like Notepad. Look REAL. Ideal for Gift and Decoration

  3 ($3.98)Instant Buy

Become a Laird, Lord or Lady of Blackwood incl Scottish land

x97 29.99 ($39.82)Instant Buy

Bedroom Commands Game

x3 9.99 ($13.27)Instant Buy

Black Cloisonne Spoon (a1749)

  2.99 ($3.97)Instant Buy

Blue Cloisonne Spoon (a1745)

  2.99 ($3.97)Instant Buy

Blue Cloisonne Spoon (a1748)

  2.99 ($3.97)Instant Buy

Blue Cloisonne Spoon (a1750)

  2.99 ($3.97)Instant Buy

Bondage Seduction Game

x3 20.99 ($27.87)Instant Buy

Chanel Box 8x8x4

x25 6 ($7.97)Instant Buy


  4.99 ($6.63)Instant Buy

Corkscrew with Gnarled Wood Handle -made from old grape vine

  3.99 ($5.30)Instant Buy

Crystal paperweight, glass, 24% LEAD CRYSTAL, REPUBLICAN

x30 19.99 ($26.54)Instant Buy

Dark Legend Purple Dragon Trinket Box Gothic Style Gift New in box

  7.99 ($10.61)Instant Buy


  22 ($29.21)Instant Buy

Flip Flops Beach Sandals Keychain Freaky Friends Lady Bug &

  1.99 ($2.64)Instant Buy


  1 ($1.33)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin Nicole Gets This One

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin Sara Gets This One

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Aaron

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Andrea

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Andrew

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Audrea

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Becky

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Brad

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Buddy

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Chad

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Edward

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is James

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Jeff

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Jonathan

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Joshua

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Keith

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Laura

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Laurie

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Lestlie

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Lisa

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Mary

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Matthew

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Nicole

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Pam

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Patrick

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Rachel

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Ryan

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Sara

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Sarah

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Scott

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Shannon

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Stacy

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Stephanie

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Steve

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Tammy

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Terri

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Tina

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Toni

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Tony

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Genuine Cloisonne VTG Pin This One Is Wendy

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

Hot Sex Dice Fun Novelty Gift For Him And Her. Great Night In Game

x3 21.99 ($29.20)Instant Buy

Keyring Cloisonne (651)

x19 1 ($1.33)Instant Buy

Keyring Cloisonne (a0675)

x9 1 ($1.33)Instant Buy

Keyring Cloisonne (a0676)

x9 1 ($1.33)Instant Buy

Keyring Cloisonne (a0677)

x9 1 ($1.33)Instant Buy

Led Keyring Torch (A1035)

  1.50 ($1.99)Instant Buy

Lust: A Passionate Game for Couples

x3 16.99 ($22.56)Instant Buy

Michael Jackson eyemask brand-new

  19.99 ($26.54)Instant Buy


  5.25 ($6.97)Instant Buy

Obama crystal paperweight, glass, forward, 44th President of USA Limie

  29.99 ($39.82)Instant Buy

Obama inauguration 24% lead crystal paperweight / plaque, glass iceber

x10 29 ($38.51)Instant Buy

Obelisk optical GLASS on black base 12" high, Gift crystal

x10 59 ($78.35)Instant Buy

Oral Sex The Game

x3 14.99 ($19.91)Instant Buy

Pack of 3 Birthday Magical Musical Flower Candle

x10 19.95 ($26.49)Instant Buy

Peach Cloisonne Spoon (a1747)

  2.99 ($3.97)Instant Buy

Peter Pan tin money box

  3.50 ($4.65)Instant Buy


  13 ($17.26)Instant Buy

Suicide Squad Harley Quinn Can and Joker Two Sided Hugger

  0.99 ($1.31)23 Oct 02:05

supermarket shopping trolley / lockertoken keyring union jack

x5 1.70 ($2.26)Instant Buy

Supermarket Trolley Pound Coin Locker Token Keyring x1

x99 1.85 ($2.46)Instant Buy

Supermarket Trolley Pound Coin Locker Token Keyrings x2

x99 2.59 ($3.44)Instant Buy

the 1,000,000 banknote from the film

x10 1 ($1.33)Instant Buy

The Foreplay in a Row Game

x3 14.99 ($19.91)Instant Buy


  22 ($29.21)Instant Buy

The Game of Compromising Positions

x3 26.99 ($35.84)Instant Buy

The Love or Lust Game

x3 15.99 ($21.23)Instant Buy


  22 ($29.21)Instant Buy


  24.99 ($33.18)Instant Buy


  13.99 ($18.58)Instant Buy


  13 ($17.26)Instant Buy

VTG Name Pin Genuine Cloisonne This One Is Christopher

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

VTG Name Pin Genuine Cloisonne This One Is Sarah

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

VTG Name Pin Genuine Cloisonne This One Is Todd

  8.40 ($11.15)Instant Buy

White Cloisonne Spoon (a1746)

  2.99 ($3.97)Instant Buy

Wooden Nutcracker with Novelty Squirrel design

  3.99 ($5.30)Instant Buy
Item Description     Click to enlarge image + Click to enlarge
1919 Penny

End of WWI
Minted at Kings Norton Mint Birmingham

A Ninety Four Year old British Penny from 1919

This Penny has a Small KN above the date to show it was not made by the Royal Mint but by the Kings Norton Mint in Birmingham

Many of these coins were removed from circulation by collectors

In the reign of King George V the Royal Mint ran out of capacity to strike enough coins for everyday usage, so they contracted out the minting of some Pennies. One of the two Mints they used was the King’s Norton Mint, unlike the Birmingham Mint, the King’s Norton Mint had never struck coins for them before.

They only made pennies for the Mint in 1918 and 1919 and all of these coins carry the ‘KN’ mint mark by the left of the date. Of the two mints, the King’s Norton is by a far distance the most difficult to get

And the 1919 Kings Norton is a lot rarer than the 1918 Kings Norton as a lot less were made

In Good Condition given it is almost one hundred years old

Would make an Excellent Gift or Collectable Keepsake souvineer

I will have a lot of Similar items on Ebay so CLICK HERE TO VISIT MY SHOP

I will have a lot of Badges items on Ebay so Please  Check out my  other items!
  Bid with Confidence - Check My 100% Positive Feedback from over 1,800 Satisfied Customers
I have over 4 years of Ebay Selling Experience - So Why Not Treat Yourself?

I have got married recently and need to raise funds to meet the costs also we are planning to move into a house together

I always combined postage on multiple items so why not >  Check out my other items!

 All Payment Methods in All Major Currencies Accepted. All Items Sent out within 24 hours of Receiving Payment. 

Overseas Bidders Please Note Surface Mail Delivery Times > 

Western Europe takes up to 2 weeks, 

Eastern Europe up to 5 weeks, 

North America up to 6 weeks, 

South America, Africa and Asia up to 8 weeks and 

Australasia up to 12 weeks

For that Interesting Conversational Piece, A Birthday Present, Christmas Gift, A Comical Item to Cheer Someone Up or That Unique Perfect Gift for the Person Who has Everything....You Know Where to Look for a Bargain!

Please Take a Moment Click Here to Check Out My Other items

*** Please Do Not Click Here ***

If You Have any Questions Please Email Me via CQout  and I Will Reply ASAP

Thanks for Looking and Best of Luck with the Bidding!! 

The Countries I Send to Include Afghanistan * Albania * Algeria * American Samoa (US) * Andorra * Angola * Anguilla (GB) * Antigua and Barbuda * Argentina * Armenia * Aruba (NL) * Australia * Austria * Azerbaijan * Bahamas * Bahrain * Bangladesh * Barbados * Belarus * Belgium * Belize * Benin * Bermuda (GB) * Bhutan * Bolivia * Bonaire (NL)  * Bosnia and Herzegovina * Botswana * Bouvet Island (NO) * Brazil * British Indian Ocean Territory (GB) * British Virgin Islands (GB) * Brunei * Bulgaria * Burkina Faso * Burundi * Cambodia * Cameroon * Canada * Cape Verde * Cayman Islands (GB) * Central African Republic * Chad * Chile * China * Christmas Island (AU) * Cocos Islands (AU) * Colombia * Comoros * Congo * Democratic Republic of the Congo * Cook Islands (NZ) * Coral Sea Islands Territory (AU) * Costa Rica * Croatia * Cuba * Curaçao (NL)  * Cyprus * Czech Republic * Denmark * Djibouti * Dominica * Dominican Republic * East Timor * Ecuador * Egypt * El Salvador * Equatorial Guinea * Eritrea * Estonia * Ethiopia * Falkland Islands (GB) * Faroe Islands (DK) * Fiji Islands * Finland * France * French Guiana (FR) * French Polynesia (FR) * French Southern Lands (FR) * Gabon * Gambia * Georgia * Germany * Ghana * Gibraltar (GB) * Greece * Greenland (DK) * Grenada * Guadeloupe (FR) * Guam (US) * Guatemala * Guernsey (GB) * Guinea * Guinea-Bissau * Guyana * Haiti * Heard and McDonald Islands (AU) * Honduras * Hong Kong (CN) * Hungary * Iceland * India * Indonesia * Iran * Iraq * Ireland * Isle of Man (GB) * Israel * Italy * Ivory Coast * Jamaica * Jan Mayen (NO) * Japan * Jersey (GB) * Jordan * Kazakhstan * Kenya * Kiribati * Kosovo * Kuwait * Kyrgyzstan * Laos * Latvia * Lebanon * Lesotho * Liberia * Libya * Liechtenstein * Lithuania * Luxembourg * Macau (CN) * Macedonia * Madagascar * Malawi * Malaysia * Maldives * Mali * Malta * Marshall Islands * Martinique (FR) * Mauritania * Mauritius * Mayotte (FR) * Mexico * Micronesia * Moldova * Monaco * Mongolia * Montenegro * Montserrat (GB) * Morocco * Mozambique * Myanmar * Namibia * Nauru * Navassa (US) * Nepal * Netherlands * New Caledonia (FR) * New Zealand * Nicaragua * Niger * Nigeria * Niue (NZ) * Norfolk Island (AU) * North Korea * Northern Cyprus * Northern Mariana Islands (US) * Norway * Oman * Pakistan * Palau * Palestinian Authority * Panama * Papua New Guinea * Paraguay * Peru * Philippines * Pitcairn Island (GB) * Poland * Portugal * Puerto Rico (US) * Qatar * Reunion (FR) * Romania * Russia * Rwanda * Saba (NL)  * Saint Barthelemy (FR) * Saint Helena (GB) * Saint Kitts and Nevis * Saint Lucia * Saint Martin (FR) * Saint Pierre and Miquelon (FR) * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * Samoa * San Marino * Sao Tome and Principe * Saudi Arabia * Senegal * Serbia * Seychelles * Sierra Leone * Singapore * Sint Eustatius (NL)  * Sint Maarten (NL)  * Slovakia * Slovenia * Solomon Islands * Somalia * South Africa * South Georgia (GB) * South Korea * South Sudan * Spain * Sri Lanka * Sudan * Suriname * Svalbard (NO) * Swaziland * Sweden * Switzerland * Syria * Taiwan * Tajikistan * Tanzania * Thailand * Togo * Tokelau (NZ) * Tonga * Trinidad and Tobago * Tunisia * Turkey * Turkmenistan * Turks and Caicos Islands (GB) * Tuvalu * U.S. Minor Pacific Islands (US) * U.S. Virgin Islands (US) * Uganda * Ukraine * United Arab Emirates * United Kingdom * United States * Uruguay * Uzbekistan * Vanuatu * Vatican City * Venezuela * Vietnam * Wallis and Futuna (FR) * Yemen * Zambia * Zimbabwe

The penny of the Kingdom of Great Britain and later of the United Kingdom, was in circulation from the early 18th century until February 1971, Decimal Day.

Twelve pence made one shilling; the penny was therefore 1/240 of a pound. To express an amount, penny was abbreviated to "d", e.g. 1d, from the Roman denarius.

The penny of King Edward VII (1901–1910) is of the same technical standards as the late Victorian issues. The head on the obverse is by George William de Saulles (1862–1903), facing right, with the inscription EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA BRITT OMN REX FID DEF IND IMP. The reverse shows the seated Britannia surrounded by ONE PENNY and over the date, which remained the standard design until 1970, although there is a variety of some 1902 pennies known as the low tide penny, where the sea appears exceptionally low on Britannia's leg. Pennies were produced for all years of Edward VII's reign.

King George V (1910–1936) pennies were produced to the same standard until 1922, but after a three-year gap in production the alloy composition was changed in 1925 to 95.5% copper, 3% tin, and 1.5% zinc, although the weight remained at ? oz (9.45 grams) and the diameter 31 millimetres. The inscription around the three variations of the left-facing king's head remained GEORGIVS V DEI GRA BRITT OMN REX FID DEF IND IMP, while Britannia remained on the reverse, as before. In addition to the Royal Mint in the Tower of London, in 1912, 1918 and 1919 some coins were produced at the Heaton Mint in Birmingham, and are identified by an "H" to the left of the date, and in 1918 and 1919 some were also produced at the Kings Norton Metal Co. Ltd, also in Birmingham, and are identified by "KN" to the left of the date. Pennies were produced in 1911–1922 inclusive, and 1926–1936 inclusive bearing George V's effigy, however the 1933 penny is the greatest British numismatic rarity of the 20th century - only seven coins were min
ted, specifically for the king to lay under the foundation stones of new buildings; one of these coins was stolen when a church in Leeds was demolished in the 1960s, and its whereabouts is currently unknown.

Before decimalisation brought about a new currency with new coinage, the sum of three pence was pronounced variously /'?r?p?ns/throop-ence, /'?r?p?ns/threpp-ence or /'?r?p?ns/thrupp-ence, reflecting different pronunciations in the various regions and nations of Great Britain. Likewise, the coin was usually referred to in conversation as a /'?r?pni/throop-nee, /'?r?pni/threpp-nee or /'?r?pni/thrupp-nee bit.

British coinage
Current circulation   
One penny Two pence Five pence Ten pence Twenty pence Fifty pence One pound Two pounds
Commemorative and bullion   
Twenty-five pence Five pounds Maundy money Quarter sovereign Half sovereign Sovereign Britannia
Withdrawn (decimal)   
Half penny
Withdrawn (pre-decimal,
selected coins)   
Quarter-farthing Third-farthing Half-farthing Farthing Halfpenny Penny Threepence Groat Sixpence One shilling Two shillings (florin) Half crown Double florin (four shillings) Crown Half guinea Guinea
See also   
Pound sterling Coins of the pound sterling List of British banknotes and coins Scottish coinage Coins of Ireland List of people on coins of the United Kingdom

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries: 19th century – 20th century – 21st century
Decades: 1880s  1890s  1900s  – 1910s –  1920s  1930s  1940s
v t e
1919 in other calendars
Gregorian calendar 1919
Ab urbe condita 2672
Armenian calendar 1368
?? ????
Assyrian calendar 6669
Bahá'í calendar 75–76
Bengali calendar 1326
Berber calendar 2869
British Regnal year 8 Geo. 5 – 9 Geo. 5
Buddhist calendar 2463
Burmese calendar 1281
Byzantine calendar 7427–7428
Chinese calendar ??? (Earth Horse)
4615 or 4555
    — to —
??? (Earth Goat)
4616 or 4556
Coptic calendar 1635–1636
Ethiopian calendar 1911–1912
Hebrew calendar 5679–5680
Hindu calendars 
 - Vikram Samvat 1975–1976
 - Shaka Samvat 1841–1842
 - Kali Yuga 5020–5021
Holocene calendar 11919
Igbo calendar 919–920
Iranian calendar 1297–1298
Islamic calendar 1337–1338
Japanese calendar Taisho 8
Juche calendar 8
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar 4252
Minguo calendar ROC 8
Thai solar calendar 2462
This box: view talk edit
 Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1919.
Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar.

January 1: Iolaire sinks.
January 1
The Czechoslovak Legions occupy much of the self-proclaimed "free city" of Pressburg, enforcing its incorporation into the new republic of Czechoslovakia.[1]
HMS Iolaire sinks off the coast of Scotland; 206 die.
Edsel Ford succeeds his father as head of the Ford Motor Company.
January 5
Spartacist uprising: Socialist demonstrations in Berlin, Germany turn into an attempted communist revolution.
In Germany, the German Workers' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, DAP), predecessor of the Nazi Party, is formed by merger of Anton Drexler's Committee of Independent Workmen with journalist Karl Harrer's Political Worker's Circle.
January 6 – Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th President of the United States, dies in his sleep at the age of 60.
January 7
The beginning of Tragic Week (Argentina); an anarchist uprising in Buenos Aires is suppressed by official forces.
Estonian War of Independence: The Soviet Red Army meets resistance from Estonian forces.
January 9 – Friedrich Ebert orders the Freikorps into action in Berlin.
January 10–12 – The Freikorps attacks Spartacist supporters around Berlin.
January 11
Romania annexes Transylvania.
Georgians genocide in Alagir.
January 13 – Worker's councils in Berlin end the general strike; the Spartacist uprising is over.
January 15
Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht are murdered following the Spartacist uprising.
Boston Molasses Disaster: A wave of molasses released from an exploding storage tank sweeps through Boston, Massachusetts, killing 21 and injuring 150.
January 16
The Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, authorizing Prohibition, is ratified.
Pianist Ignacy Jan Paderewski becomes the second Prime Minister of Poland.
January 18
World War I: The Paris Peace Conference opens at the Palace of Versailles, France.[2]
Bentley Motors Limited is founded in England.
January 21 – Dáil Éireann meets for the first time in the Mansion House, Dublin. It comprises Sinn Féin members elected in the 1918 general election who, in accordance with their manifesto, have not taken their seats in the Parliament of the United Kingdom but chosen to declare an independent Irish Republic. In the first shots of the Anglo-Irish War, two Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) men are killed in an ambush at Soloheadbeg in Tipperary.
– first emperor of Korean Empire<K.E. occur on 1897~1910> Gojong(Gojong of the Korean Empire dead.
January 23 – The Khotin Uprising breaks out in Khotyn, Ukraine.
January 25 – The League of Nations is founded in Paris.
January 31
Battle of George Square: The British Army is called in to deal with riots and protests against high rents in Glasgow, Scotland.
Estonian War of Independence: The Red Army is expelled from the entire territory of Estonia.

David Kirkwood being detained by police during the Battle of George Square
February 3 – Soviet troops occupy Ukraine.
February 4-5 – Pressburg (Bratislava) becomes capital of Slovakia.[3]
February 6 – The Seattle General Strike begins in the United States, affecting over 65,000 workers.
February 11
Friedrich Ebert is elected first President of Germany.
The Seattle General Strike ends when Federal troops are summoned by the State of Washington's Attorney General.
February 12 – Ethnic Germans and Hungarian inhabitants of Pressburg start a protest against its incorporation into Czechoslovakia but the Czechoslovak Legions open fire on the unarmed demonstrators.[4]
February 14 – The Polish-Soviet War begins with the Battle of Bereza Kartuska.
February 25 – Oregon places a one cent per US gallon (0.26¢/liter) tax on gasoline, becoming the first U.S. state to levy a gasoline tax.
February 26 – Grand Canyon National Park: An act of the United States Congress establishes most of the Grand Canyon as a United States National Park.
February 28 – Amanullah Khan becomes King of Afghanistan.
March 1 – The March 1st Movement against Japanese colonial rule in Korea is formed.
March 2 – Founding Congress of the Comintern opens in Moscow.
March 3 – The Supreme Court of the United States upholds the conviction of Charles Schenck.
March 4 – The Communist International (Comintern) is founded.
March 4–5 – Kinmel Park Riots by troops of the Canadian Expeditionary Force awaiting repatriation at Kinmel Camp, Bodelwyddan, in North Wales. Five men are killed, 28 injured, and 25 convicted of mutiny.[5]
March 5 – A. Mitchell Palmer becomes United States Attorney General through recess appointment.
March 8 – The Rowlatt Act is passed by the Imperial Legislative Council in London, indefinitely extending the emergency provisions of the Defence of India Act 1915.
March 9 – The Egyptian Revolution of 1919 breaks out.
March 15–17 – Members of the American Expeditionary Forces convene in Paris for the first American Legion caucus.
March 21 – The Hungarian Soviet Republic is established by Béla Kun.
March 23 – In Milan, Italy, Benito Mussolini founds his Fascist political movement.
March 23–24 – Charles I, last Emperor of Austria, leaves Austria for exile in Switzerland.
March 27 – The name Bratislava is officially adopted for the city of Pressburg.[6]
March 31 – A general strike begins in the Ruhr.
April 6–7 – The Bavarian Soviet Republic is founded.
April 10 – Mexican Revolution leader Emiliano Zapata is ambushed and shot dead in Morelos.
April 12 – French serial killer Henri Désiré Landru is arrested.
April 13
Amritsar Massacre: British and Gurkha troops massacre 379 Sikhs at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar in the Punjab Province (British India).
Eugene V. Debs enters prison at the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary in Atlanta, Georgia for speaking out against the draft during World War I.
April 15 – Save the Children Fund is created in the UK to raise money for the relief of German and Austrian children.
April 20 – The French Army blows up the bridge over the Dniester at Bender, Moldova, to protect the city from the Bolsheviks.[7]
April 23 – The Constituent Assembly of Estonia convenes its first session.
April 25
The Bauhaus architectural movement is founded in Weimar, Germany.
ANZAC day is observed for the first time in Australia.
Pancho Villa takes Parral, Chihuahua, in Mexico, and executes the mayor and his two sons by hanging.
April 30 – Several bombs are intercepted in the first wave of the 1919 United States anarchist bombings.
May 1
A large left-wing demonstration in France leads to a violent confrontation with the police.
Riots break out in Cleveland, Ohio; 2 people are killed, 40 injured, and 116 arrested.
May 2 Weimar Republic troops and the Freikorps occupy Munich and crush the Bavarian Soviet Republic.
May 3
Amanullah Khan attacks British government in India.
America's first passenger flight departs from New York and lands in Atlantic City.
May 4
The May Fourth Movement opposes foreign colonizers in China erupts.
The League of Red Cross Societies is founded in Paris.
May 6 – Beginning of the Third Anglo-Afghan War.
May 8 – Edward George Honey first proposes the idea of a moment of silence to commemorate the Armistice of World War I, which later results in the creation of Remembrance Day.
May 8–27 – United States Navy Curtiss flying boat NC-4 commanded by Albert Cushing Read makes the first transatlantic flight, from Naval Air Station Rockaway to Lisbon via Trepassey, Newfoundland (departs May 16) and the Azores (arrives May 17). (On May 30–31 it flies on to Plymouth in England.)
May 9 – In Belgium, a new electoral law introduces universal manhood suffrage and gives the franchise to certain classes of women.
May 15 – Winnipeg general strike: Workers in Winnipeg, Manitoba, launch a strike for better wages and working conditions.
May 15 – The Hellenic Army lands at Smyrna on ships of the British Royal Navy.
May 17 – The Committee of One Thousand forms to oppose the Winnipeg General Strike.
May 19
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk lands at Samsun on the Anatolian Black Sea coast, marking the start of the Turkish War of Independence. The anniversary of this event is also an official day of Turkish Youth.
Volcano Kelud erupts in Java, killing about 5,000.
May 23 – The University of California opens its second campus in Los Angeles. Initially called Southern Branch of the University of California (SBUC), it is eventually renamed the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).
May 27 – Fyodor Raskolnikov is exchanged for fourteen British prisoners of war.
May 29
Einstein's theory of general relativity is tested by Arthur Eddington's observation of the "bending of light" during a total solar eclipse in Principe, and by Andrew Crommelin in Sobral, Ceará, Brazil (confirmed November 19).[8]
The Republic of Prekmurje formally declares independence from Hungary.
May 30 – By agreement with the United Kingdom, later confirmed by the League of Nations, Belgium is given the mandate over part of German East Africa (Ruanda-Urundi).

"The Big Four" during the Paris Peace Conference (from left to right, David Lloyd George, Vittorio Orlando, Georges Clemenceau, Woodrow Wilson).
June 2 – Several mail bombs are sent to prominent figures as part of the 1919 United States anarchist bombings.
June 4 – Women's rights: The United States Congress approves the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution, which would guarantee suffrage to women, and sends it to the U.S. states for ratification.
June 6 – The Hungarian Red Army attacks the Republic of Prekmurje.
June 7 – Sette Giugno on Malta: British troops fire on a mob protesting against the colonial government, killing four.
June 14–15 – A Vickers Vimy piloted by John Alcock DSC with navigator Arthur Whitten Brown makes the first nonstop transatlantic flight, from St. John's, Newfoundland, to Clifden, Connemara, Ireland.
June 15 – Pancho Villa attacks Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. When the bullets begin to fly to the American side of the border, two units of the 7th Cavalry Regiment (United States) cross the border to repulse Villa's forces away from American territory.
June 17 – English Police Sergeant Thomas Green killed during the Epsom Riot by Canadian troops
June 21
Winnipeg General Strike: Royal Northwest Mounted Police fire a volley of bullets into a crowd of unemployed war veterans, killing two.
Scuttling of the German fleet in Scapa Flow: Admiral Ludwig von Reuter scuttles the German fleet interned in Scapa Flow, Scotland; nine German sailors are killed.
June 23 – Estonian War of Independence – Battle of Cesis: The Estonian army is victorious in northern Latvia against the pro-German Baltische Landeswehr.
June 26 – British Foreign Office official St John Philby and T. E. Lawrence arrive in Cairo for discussions about Arab unrest in Egypt having been flown by Canadian pilot Harry Yates in a Handley Page bomber which set off from England on June 21.
June 28
The Treaty of Versailles is signed, formally ending World War I.[2]
International Labor Organization (ILO) is established as an agency of the League of Nations.
July 2 – The Syrian National Congress in Damascus: Arab nationalists announce independence.
July 2–6 – British airship R34 makes the first transatlantic flight by dirigible, and the first westbound flight, from RAF East Fortune, Scotland, to Mineola, New York.
July 7 – The United States Army sends a convoy across the continental U.S., starting in Washington, D.C., to assess the possibility of crossing North America by road. This crossing takes many months to complete, because the building of the U.S. Highway System has not commenced.
July 11 – The eight-hour day and free Sunday become law for workers in the Netherlands.
July 19 – The Foreign Ministry of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic is established by decree of the chancellory for foreign affairs.[9]
July 21 – Wingfoot Air Express crash: The dirigible Wingfoot Air Express catches fire over downtown Chicago. Two passengers, one aircrewman and ten people on the ground are killed. However, two people parachute to the ground safely.[10]
July 27 – The Chicago Race Riot of 1919 begins when a white man throws stones at a group of four black teens on a raft.
July 31 – British police strike in London and Liverpool for recognition of the National Union of Police and Prison Officers; over 2,000 strikers are dismissed.

Romanian troops entering Budapest
August 1 – Béla Kun's Hungarian Soviet Republic collapses.
August 3 – Romanian army liberates Timi?oara from the Hungarian occupation.
August 4 – Romanian army occupies Budapest.
August 8 – Treaty of Rawalpindi ends the Third Anglo-Afghan War.
August 11 – In Germany, the Weimar Constitution is proclaimed to be in effect (ratified).
August 18 – The Bolshevik fleet at Kronstadt, near Petrograd, Russia, on the Baltic Sea, is mostly destroyed by German warplanes and torpedo boats in a combined operation.
August 19 – Afghanistan gains independence from the United Kingdom.
August 16–26 – First Silesian Uprising: The Poles in Upper Silesia rise against the Germans.

Friedrich Ebert becomes president in Weimar, Germany
August 21– Friedrich Ebert becomes first president in Germany
August 31 – The American Communist Party is established.
September 6 – The U.S. Army expedition across America, which started July 7, ends in San Francisco.
September 10 – The Treaty of Saint-Germain is signed, ending World War I with Empire of Austria-Hungary.
September 10–15: The Florida Keys Hurricane kills 600 in the Gulf of Mexico, Florida and Texas.
September 12
While working as a spy for the police, Adolf Hitler is ordered to monitor the German Workers' Party.
Gabriele D'Annunzio, with his entourage, marches into Fiume and convinces Italian troops to join him.
September 21 – The Steel strike of 1919 begins across the United States.
September 27 – The last British Army troops leave Archangel and leave fighting to the Russians.
October 2 – President of the United States Woodrow Wilson suffers a serious stroke, rendering him an invalid for the remainder of his life (to 1924).
October 9 – In Major League Baseball, the Cincinnati Reds win the World Series, five games to three, over the Chicago White Sox, whose players are later found to have lost intentionally.
October 16 – In Germany, Adolf Hitler gives his first speech for the German Workers' Party (DAP).
October 13 – The Convention relating to the Regulation of Aerial Navigation is signed.
October 16 – The historic Condado Vanderbilt Hotel is inaugurated in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
October 28 – Prohibition in the United States is authorized: The United States Congress passes the Volstead Act over President Woodrow Wilson's veto. Prohibition goes into effect on January 17, 1920, under the provisions of the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution.
November 1 – The Coal Strike of 1919 begins in the United States by the United Mine Workers under John L. Lewis. Final agreement comes on December 10.
November 7 – The first Palmer Raid is conducted on the second anniversary of the Russian Revolution. Over 10,000 suspected communists and anarchists are arrested in twenty-three different U.S. cities.
November 9 – Felix the Cat appears in Feline Follies, marking the first cartoon character to become popular.
November 10 – Supreme Court of the United States upholds conviction of Jacob Abrams.
November 10–12 – The first national convention of the American Legion is held in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
November 11 – The Centralia Massacre in Centralia, Washington results in the deaths of four members of the American Legion, and the lynching of a local leader of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW).
November 16 – After Entente pressure, Romanian forces withdraw from Budapest and allow Admiral Horthy to march in.
November 19 – The Treaty of Versailles fails a critical ratification vote in the United States Senate. It will never be ratified by the U.S.
November 27 – The Treaty of Neuilly is signed between the Allies and Bulgaria.
November 30 – Health officials declare the global "Spanish" flu pandemic has ceased.
December 1
Nancy Astor, Viscountess Astor, becomes the second woman elected to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom and the first to take her seat (the first elected was Constance Markievicz).
XWA (now CINW), in Montreal, Quebec, becomes the first public radio station in North America to go on the air.
December 5 – The Turkish Ministry of War releases Greeks, Armenians and Jews from military service.
December 19 – The fictional character Ham Gravy makes his début in Thimble Theatre Comics.
December 21 – The United States deports 249 people, including Emma Goldman, to Russia on the USAT Buford.
December 25 – Cliftonhill Stadium in Coatbridge, Scotland, opens as the home of Albion Rovers F.C.. They lose the opening match 2–0 to St. Mirren.
Date unknown[edit]
John Maynard Keynes' book The Economic Consequences of the Peace is published in the UK.
Les Champs Magnétiques, the first book produced using the techniques of surrealist automatism, is written by André Breton and Philippe Soupault.
Female suffrage is enacted in Germany and Luxembourg.
The International Astronomical Union is founded in Paris.
The World League Against Alcoholism is established by the Anti-Saloon League.
President of the United States Woodrow Wilson promises eventual independence for Philippines, though subsequent Republican administrations see it as a distant goal.
John Browning finalizes the design for the M1919 Browning machine gun (.30 caliber), the first widely distributed and practical air cooled medium machine gun introduced to the United States Military. It receives an official designation and production is started in the same year.
John T. Thompson finalizes the design of the Thompson submachine gun in the United States.
Earl W. Bascom, rodeo cowboy and artist, along with his father John W. Bascom at Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, designs and makes rodeo's first reverse-opening side-delivery bucking chute, now the world standard.
Severe inflation in Germany sees the Papiermark rise to 47 marks against the United States dollar by December, compared to 12 marks in April.[11]
January 1 – J. D. Salinger, American novelist (The Catcher in the Rye) (d. 2010)
January 5 – Hector Abhayavardhana, Sri Lankan political theorist (d. 2012)
January 10 – Amzie Strickland, American actress (d. 2006)
January 13 – Robert Stack, American actor (The Untouchables) (d. 2003)
January 14
Andy Rooney, American journalist (60 Minutes) (d. 2011)
Giulio Andreotti, Italian politician (d. 2013)
January 15 – George Cadle Price, first Prime Minister of Belize (d. 2011)
January 23
Frances Bay, Canadian actress (d. 2011)
Hans Hass, Austrian zoologist (d. 2013)
Ernie Kovacs, American comedian (d. 1962)
Bob Paisley, British football player and manager (d. 1996)
January 24 – Leon Kirchner, American composer (d. 2009)
January 25
Edwin Newman, American journalist and writer (NBC Nightly News) (d. 2010)
Eula Beal, American contralto (d. 2008)
January 26 – Valentino Mazzola, Italian footballer (d. 1949)
January 27 – Ross Bagdasarian, American musician and actor (Alvin and the Chipmunks) (d. 1972)
January 30 – John C. Elliott, American politician and 39th Governor of American Samoa (d. 2001)
January 31 – Jackie Robinson, African-American baseball player (d. 1972)
February 5
Red Buttons, American actor (d. 2006)
Andreas Papandreou, Prime Minister of Greece (d. 1996)
February 9 – Langdon Brown Gilkey, American Protestant ecumenical theologian (d. 2004)
February 11
Eva Gabor, Hungarian actress (Green Acres) (d. 1995)
Eddie Robinson, American football coach (d. 2007)
February 12
Forrest Tucker, American actor (F Troop) (d. 1986)
Ferruccio Valcareggi, Italian football player and manager (d. 2005)
February 13 – Tennessee Ernie Ford, American musician (d. 1991)
February 16 – Charlie Parlato, American musician (d. 2007)
February 18 – Jack Palance, American actor (d. 2006)
February 20
Joe Krol, Canadian football player (d. 2008)
James O'Meara, British Battle of Britain Spitfire Flying Ace (d. 1974)
February 24 – Árpád Bogsch, Hungarian international civil servant (d. 2004)
February 26
Rie Mastenbroek, Dutch swimmer (d. 2003)
Mason Adams, American character actor (d. 2005)
March 2 – Jennifer Jones, American actress (d. 2009)
March 4 – Buck Baker, American racecar driver (d. 2002)
March 7 – M. N. Nambiar, Indian film actor (d. 2008)
March 14 – Max Shulman, American comedic writer (d. 1988)
March 15 – Lawrence Tierney, American actor (d. 2002)
March 17 – Nat King Cole, African-American singer (Unforgettable) (d. 1965)
March 20 – Gerhard Barkhorn, German World War II fighter ace (d. 1983)
March 24
Lawrence Ferlinghetti, American author and publisher
Robert Heilbroner, American economist (d. 2005)
March 29 – Eileen Heckart, American actress (d. 2001)
March 30 – McGeorge Bundy, U.S. National Security Advisor (d. 1996)
April 1 – Joseph Murray, American surgeon, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
April 8 – Ian Smith, Prime Minister of Rhodesia (d. 2007)
April 13
Howard Keel, American singer, dancer and actor (Dallas) (d. 2004)
Phil Tonken, American radio and television announcer (d. 2000)
April 16 – Merce Cunningham, American dancer and choreographer (d. 2009)
April 20 – Richard Hillary, British pilot and author (d. 1943)
April 22 – Donald J. Cram, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2001)
April 24 – Glafkos Klerides, Cypriot president (1993–2003)
May 1
Dan O'Herlihy, Irish film actor (d. 2005)
Mohammed Karim Lamrani, Prime Minister of Morocco
May 3
John Cullen Murphy, American comic strip artist (d. 2004)
Pete Seeger, American folk singer and musician
May 4 – Dory Funk, American professional wrestler (d. 1973)
May 7
La Esterella, Flemish singer (d. 2011)
Eva Perón, wife of Argentine President Juan Peron (d. 1952)
May 8 – Lex Barker, American actor (d. 1973)
May 14 – Denis Cannan, British dramatist, playwright and scriptwriter
May 16 – Liberace, American pianist (d. 1987)
May 17
Antonio Aguilar, Mexican singer and actor (d. 2007)
Ronald Verlin Cassill, American novelist, short story writer, editor, painter, and lithographer (d. 2002)
May 18 – Margot Fonteyn, English ballet dancer (d. 1991)
May 20 – George Gobel, American comedian (d. 1991)
May 23
Betty Garrett, American actress and dancer (d. 2011)
Avraham Drori, Polish-born Israeli politician (d. 1964)
June 4 – Robert Merrill, American baritone (d. 2004)
June 11 – Richard Todd, Irish born British actor (d. 2009)
June 12 – Ahmed Abdallah, former President of the Comoros (d. 1989)
June 14 – Gene Barry, American actor (d. 2009)
June 19 – Pauline Kael, American film critic (d. 2001)
June 21 – Gérard Pelletier, Canadian journalist, politician, and diplomat (d. 1997)
June 26 – Richard Neustadt, American political historian (d. 2003)
June 30 – Ed Yost, American inventor (d. 2007)
July 1 – Malik Dohan al-Hassan, Iraqi politician
July 6 – Ernst Haefliger, Swiss tenor (d. 2007)
July 7 – Jon Pertwee, British actor (d. 1996)
July 8 – Walter Scheel, President of Germany
July 13 – Grisha Filipov, leading member of the Bulgarian communist party (d. 1994)
July 15 – Iris Murdoch, Irish novelist (d. 1999)
July 19
Patricia Medina, English-born actress
Dallas McKennon, American actor (d. 2009)
July 20 – Sir Edmund Hillary, New Zealand mountaineer, conqueror of Mount Everest (d. 2008)
July 31 – Maurice Boitel, French painter (d. 2007)
August 2 – Nehemiah Persoff, Israeli-American character actor
August 8 – Dino De Laurentiis, Italian film producer (d. 2010)
August 9 – Joop den Uyl, Dutch politician, Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 1973 until 1977 (d. 1987)
August 11 – Ginette Neveu, French violinist (d. 1949)
August 13 –
Rex Humbard, American television evangelist (d. 2007)
George Shearing, Anglo-American jazz pianist (d. 2011)
August 14 – Isaac C. Kidd, Jr., American admiral (d. 1999)
August 15 – Benedict Kiely, Irish author and broadcaster (d. 2007)
August 18 – Walter Joseph Hickel, 2nd and 8th Governor of Alaska (d. 2010)
August 21 – Dalmiro Finol, Venezuelan baseball player (d. 1994)
August 25 – George Wallace, Governor of Alabama (d. 1998)
August 28 – Godfrey Hounsfield, English electrical engineer and inventor, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2004)
August 30 – Wolfgang Wagner, German opera director (d. 2010)
August 31 – Amrita Preetam, Indian poetess and author (d. 2005)
September 1 – Gladys Davis, Canadian professional baseball player
September 4 – Howard Morris, American actor (d. 2005)
September 11 – Ota Sik, Czech economist and politician (d. 2004)
September 18 – Pal Losonczi, Hungarian politician (d. 2005)
September 21 – Fazlur Rahman, Pakistani Islamic scholar (d. 1988)
September 24 – Rick Vallin, Russian-American actor (d. 1977)
September 26 – Matilde Camus, Spanish poet and researcher (d. 2012)
September 27 – James H. Wilkinson, English mathematician (d. 1986)
October 3 – James M. Buchanan, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2013)
October 4 – John Sawyer (Nancy Buckingham, Christina Abbey, Erica Quest, Nancy John, Hilary London), British romance novelist (d. 1994)
October 5 – Donald Pleasence, English actor (d. 1995)
October 6 – Mohamed Siad Barre, former President of Somalia (d. 1995)
October 7 – Zelman Cowen, Governor-General of Australia (d. 2011)
October 9 – Jason Wingreen, American actor
October 11 – Art Blakey, American jazz drummer (d. 1990)
October 12
Doris Miller, American sailor (d. 1943)
Mary Ainslee, American film actress (d. 1991)
October 16 – Kathleen Winsor, American writer (d. 2003)
October 17 – Zhao Ziyang, prime minister of the People's Republic of China (d. 2005)
October 18
Anita O'Day, American jazz singer (d. 2006)
Pierre Elliott Trudeau, Prime Minister of Canada (d. 2000)
October 22 – Doris Lessing, British writer
October 23 – Manolis Andronikos, Greek archaeologist (d 1992)
October 26
James E. Myers, American songwriter (d. 2001)
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (d. 1980)
Edward Brooke, Senator from Massachusetts
October 31 – Daphne Oxenford, English actress (d. 2012)
November 3
Jesús Blasco, Spanish comic book author (d. 1995)
Spider Jorgensen, American baseball player and coach (d. 2003)
November 5 – Myron Floren, American accordionist (The Lawrence Welk Show) (d. 2005)
November 6 – Christoph Probst, German White Rose resistance member (d. 1943)
November 10
Mikhail Kalashnikov, Russian firearms inventor
Michael Strank, U.S. Marine flag raiser on Iwo Jima (d. 1945)
November 14 – Lisa Otto, German soprano (d. 2013)
November 15 – Roy Burden, Canadian World War II pilot (d. 2005)
November 18 – Andrée Borrel, French World War II heroine (d. 1944)
November 19 – Alan Young, English-born character actor
November 21 – Gert Fredriksson, Swedish canoer (d. 2006)
November 26 – Frederik Pohl, American science fiction writer (d. 2013)
November 28 – Keith Miller, Australian sportsman (d. 2004)
December 4 – I. K. Gujral, Indian politician, Prime Minister of India (1997–98) (d. 2012)
December 6 – Paul de Man, Belgian-born literary critic (d. 1983)
December 7 – Lis Løwert, Danish actress (d. 2009)
December 8 – Mieczyslaw Weinberg, Polish composer (d. 1996)
December 9 – William Lipscomb, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2011)
December 13 – Hans-Joachim Marseille, German World War II fighter ace (d. 1942)
December 14 – Margie Stewart, American model and actress (d. 2012)
December 21 – Ove Sprogøe, Danish actor (d. 2004)
December 31 – Tommy Byrne, baseball player (d. 2007)
Isaac Asimov, Russian-born author (born between October 4, 1919, and January 2, 1920, inclusive;[12] d. 1992)
Date unknown[edit]
Balto, American sled dog (d. 1933)
January 4 – Georg von Hertling, Chancellor of Germany (b. 1843)
January 6
Max Heindel, Christian occultist, astrologer, and mystic (b. 1865)
Theodore Roosevelt, 26th President of the United States (b. 1858)
Jacques Vaché, French writer, associated with Surrealism (b. 1895)
January 7 – Henry Ware Eliot American industrialist and philanthropist (b. 1843)
January 8 – Jim O'Rourke, American baseball player and MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1850)
January 15
Karl Liebknecht, German communist politician (b. 1871)

Rosa Luxemburg.
Rosa Luxemburg, German communist politician (b. 1870)
January 18 – Prince John of the United Kingdom (b. 1905)
January 27
Endre Ady, Hungarian poet (b. 1877)
French Ensor Chadwick, American admiral (b. 1844)
February 2 – Julius Kuperjanov, Estonian military commander (b. 1894)
February 14 – Pál Luthár, Slovene teacher, cantor and writer (b. 1839)
February 17 – Wilfrid Laurier, seventh Prime Minister of Canada (b. 1841)
March 2 – Melchora Aquino, Filipino revolutionary hero (b. 1812)
April 4
Francisco Marto, Beatified, claimed to witness apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary in 1917 at Fátima, Portugal (b. 1908)
William Crookes, English chemist and physicist (b. 1832)
April 8 – Franklin Winfield Woolworth, American businessman (born 1852)
April 9 – Sidney Drew, American actor (born 1863)
April 10 – Emiliano Zapata, Mexican revolutionary (b. 1879)
April 15 – Jane Delano, American nurse and founder or the American Red Cross Nursing Service (b. 1862)
April 27 – Anton Irv, Estonian military officer (b. 1886)
May 3 – Eugen Levine, German revolutionary (b. 1883)
May 4 – Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Slovak general, politician, and astronomer (b. 1880)
May 6 – L. Frank Baum, American author, poet, playwright, actor and independent filmmaker (The Wizard of Oz) (b. 1856)
May 14 – Henry John Heinz, American businessman (b. 1844)
May 21 – Lamar Johnstone, American silent film actor & director (b. 1885)
May 28 – Hermann von Spaun, Austro-Hungarian admiral (b. 1833)
June 29 – José Gregorio Hernández, Venezuelan medician and saint (b. 1864)
June 30 – John Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, English physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1842)
July 10 – Jean Navarre, French World War I fighter ace (b. 1895)
July 15 – Hermann Emil Fischer, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1852)
July 18 – Raymonde de Laroche, French aviatrix, the first woman to receive an aviator's license (b. 1882)
July 26 – Edward Poynter, British painter (b. 1836)
August 1 – Oscar Hammerstein I, Polish-born theater impresario and composer (born 1847)
August 9 – Ruggiero Leoncavallo, Italian composer (b. 1857)
August 11 – Andrew Carnegie, Scottish-born businessman and philanthropist (b. 1835)
August 21 – Laurie Doherty, British tennis champion (born 1875)
August 27 – Louis Botha, Afrikaner statesman, president of South Africa (born 1875)
September 16 – Alfred Parland, Russian architect (born 1842)
September 22 – Alajos Gáspár, Slovene writer in Hungary (born 1848)
September 27 – Adelina Patti, Italian opera singer (born 1843)
October 2 – Victorino de la Plaza, Argentinian politician, former President of the Republic (b. 1840)
October 6 – Ricardo Palma, Peruvian writer (b. 1833)
October 7 – Alfred Deakin, second Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1856)
October 13 – Karl Adolph Gjellerup, Danish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1857)
October 17 – James Wolfe-Murray, British Army general (b. 1853)
October 18 – Viscount William Astor, American financier and statesman (b. 1848)
November 9 – Eduard Müller, Swiss Federal Councillor (b. 1848)
November 15 – Alfred Werner, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1866)
November 24 – William Stowell, American silent film actor & director (b. 1885)
December 2
Henry C. Frick, American industrialist (b. 1849)
Evelyn Wood, British field marshal and Victoria Cross recipient (b. 1838)
December 3 – Pierre-Auguste Renoir, French painter (b. 1841)
December 19 – Martin Savage, IRA commander (b. 1898)

World War I (WWI) was a global war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. It was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until the start of World War II in 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter. It involved all the world's great powers,[5] which were assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies (based on the Triple Entente of the United Kingdom, France and Russia) and the Central Powers (originally centred around the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy; but, as Austria–Hungary had taken the offensive against the agreement, Italy did not enter into the war).[6] These alliances both reorganised (Italy fought for the Allies), and expanded as more nations entered the war. Ultimately more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history.[7][8] More than 9 million combatants were killed, largely because of technological advancements that led to enormous increases in the lethality of weapons without corresponding improvements in protection or mobility. It was the sixth-deadliest conflict in world history, subsequently paving the way for various political changes such as revolutions in many of the nations involved.[9]
Long-term causes of the war included the imperialistic foreign policies of the great powers of Europe, including the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire, the British Empire, the French Republic, and Italy. The assassination on 28 June 1914 of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by a Yugoslav nationalist in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina was the proximate trigger of the war. It resulted in a Habsburg ultimatum against the Kingdom of Serbia.[10][11] Several alliances formed over the previous decades were invoked, so within weeks the major powers were at war; via their colonies, the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 28 July, the conflict opened with the Austro-Hungarian invasion of Serbia,[12][13] followed by the German invasion of Belgium, Luxembourg and France; and a Russian attack against Germany. After the German march on Paris was brought to a halt, the Western Front settled into a static battle of attrition with a trench line that changed little until 1917. In the East, the Russian army successfully fought against the Austro-Hungarian forces but was forced back from East Prussia and Poland by the German army. Additional fronts opened after the Ottoman Empire joined the war in 1914, Italy and Bulgaria in 1915 and Romania in 1916. The Russian Empire collapsed in March 1917, and Russia left the war after the October Revolution later that year. After a 1918 German offensive along the western front, the Allies drove back the German armies in a series of successful offensives and United States forces began entering the trenches. Germany, which had its own trouble with revolutionaries at this point, agreed to a cease-fire on 11 November 1918, later known as Armistice Day. The war had ended in victory for the Allies.
Events on the home fronts were as tumultuous as on the battle fronts, as the participants tried to mobilize their manpower and economic resources to fight a total war. By the end of the war, four major imperial powers—the German, Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires—ceased to exist. The successor states of the former two lost a great amount of territory, while the latter two were dismantled entirely. The map of central Europe was redrawn into several smaller states.[14] The League of Nations was formed in the hope of preventing another such conflict. The European nationalism spawned by the war and the breakup of empires, the repercussions of Germany's defeat and problems with the Treaty of Versailles are agreed to be factors contributing to World War II

D.III biplanes
Date    28 July 1914 – 11 November 1918 (Armistice)
Treaty of Versailles signed 28 June 1919
(4 years and 11 months)
Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye signed 10 September 1919
Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine signed 27 November 1919
Treaty of Trianon signed 4 June 1920
Treaty of Sèvres signed 10 August 1920
Location    Europe, Africa, the Middle East, the Pacific Islands, China and off the coast of South and North America
Result    Allied victory
End of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires
Formation of new countries in Europe and the Middle East
Transfer of German colonies and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers
Establishment of the League of Nations. (more...)
Allied (Entente) Powers
 British Empire
 New Zealand
 South Africa
 Russia (1914–17)
 Italy (1915–18)
 United States (1917–18)
 Romania (1916–18)
 Greece (1917–18)
and others
Central Powers
 Ottoman Empire
 Bulgaria (1915–18)
Various co-belligerents
Commanders and leaders
Leaders and commanders
 Raymond Poincaré
 Georges Clemenceau
 Ferdinand Foch
 H. H. Asquith
 David Lloyd George
 Douglas Haig
 Nicholas II
 Nicholas Nikolaevich
 Victor Emanuel III
 Antonio Salandra
 Vittorio Orlando
 Luigi Cadorna
 Woodrow Wilson
 John J. Pershing
 Ferdinand I
and others
Leaders and commanders
 Wilhelm II
 Paul von Hindenburg
 Erich Ludendorff
 Franz Joseph I
 Karl I
 Conrad von Hötzendorf
 Mehmed V
 Enver Pasha
 Mustafa Kemal
 Ferdinand I
 Nikola Zhekov
and others
Total: 42,959,850
Central Powers[1]
Total: 25,248,321
Casualties and losses
Military dead:
Military wounded:
Military missing:
22,477,500 KIA, WIA or MIA ...further details.    Military dead:
Military wounded:
Military missing:
16,403,000 KIA, WIA or MIA ...further details.
[hide] v t e
Theatres of World War I
Balkans Western Front Eastern Front Italian Front
Middle Eastern
Caucasus Persia Gallipoli Mesopotamia Sinai and Palestine South Arabia
South-West Africa West Africa East Africa North Africa
Asian and Pacific theatre
Other theatres
America Atlantic Ocean Mediterranean

[hide] v t e
Major armed conflicts involving the United States Armed Forces
listed chronologically
Indian Wars Shays' Rebellion Whiskey Rebellion Walton War Dorr Rebellion Anahuac Disturbances Mormon War Regulator–Moderator War Cordova Rebellion Bleeding Kansas Wakarusa War Utah War Morrisite War Erie War Civil War Bald Hills War Erie Gauge War Sheep Wars San Elizario Salt War Brooks–Baxter War Pleasant Valley War Coal Creek War Ned Christie's War Homestead Strike Battle of Blair Mountain California Water Wars Sheepshooters' War Coal Wars Illinois Coal Wars Black Patch Tobacco Wars Bonus Army Colorado Coalfield War West Virginia Coal Wars Red River Bridge War Harlan County War
Revolutionary War Quasi-War First Barbary War Blockade of Africa Sixty Years' War Chesapeake–Leopard Affair War of 1812 War of the Sixth Coalition African Slave Trade Patrol Second Barbary War Falklands Expedition Johanna Expedition First Sumatran Expedition Second Sumatran Expedition Ivory Coast Expedition Shimonoseki Campaign Mexican–American War Taos Revolt First Fiji Expedition Second Opium War Cortina Troubles Trent Affair Chesapeake Affair Formosa Expedition Second Fiji Expedition Samoan crisis Korean Expedition Las Cuevas War Egyptain Expedition First Samoan Civil War Hawaiian Rebellions Philippine Revolution Spanish–American War Philippine–American War Wilcox Rebellion Garza Revolution Black Week Hawaiian Civil War Overthrow of Hawaii Second Samoan Civil War Second Boer War Boxer Rebellion Banana Wars Occupation of Nicaragua Occupation of Veracruz Mexican Revolution Border War Pancho Villa Expedition Bandit War World War I Occupation of Haiti First
invasion of The Dominican Republic Russian Civil War World War II Greek Civil War First Indochina War Korean War 1953 Iran crisis First Taiwan Strait Crisis Laotian Civil War Second Taiwan Strait Crisis 1958 Lebanon crisis Central American crisis Guatemalan Civil War Portuguese Colonial War Bay of Pigs Invasion South African Border War Vietnam War Cambodian Civil War Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation Nicaraguan Civil War Dominican Civil War Second invasion of the Dominican Republic Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 Philippines insurgency Afghan Civil War Cambodian–Vietnamese War Iran–Iraq War Chadian-Libyan conflict Yom Kippur War Nicaraguan Revolution Salvadoran Civil War First Gulf of Sidra incident Invasion of Grenada Lebanese Civil War Angolan Civil War Second Gulf of Sidra incident First bombing of Libya Invasion of Panama Civil war in Afghanistan (1989–1992) Third Gulf of Sidra incident Gulf War Iraqi no-fly zones Somali Civil War Bombing of Iraq Iraqi Kurdish Civil War Invasion of Haiti Bosnian War Third Taiwan Strait Crisis Conch Republic clashes Missile Strikes on Iraq Civil war in Afghanistan (1996–2001) Kosovo War Albanian Rebellion Shia insurgency in Yemen Missile Strikes on Sudan and Afghanistan Kurdistan Islamist Conflict War on Terror Afghanistan War Maghreb insurgency Iraq War Drone attacks in Pakistan Central African Republic Bush War War in North-West Pakistan War in Darfur Iraqi insurgency (2003–2006) Pakistan Skirmishes Shia insurgency in Yemen War in Somalia (2006–2009) Civil war in Iraq Violence in Pakistan 2006–09 War in Somalia (2009–present) Honduran Coup Somali piracy crackdown Yemeni al-Qaeda crackdown Libyan Civil War Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Iraq insurgency 2011-present 2012 East DR Congo conflict Azawad insurgency
Related articles   
List of conflicts in the U.S. List of wars involving the U.S. Timeline of U.S. military operations Length of U.S. participation in major wars Overseas expansion Military history Covert regime-change actions Casualties of war
[hide] v t e
World War I
Home front during World War I
European theatre Balkans Western Front Eastern Front Italian Front
Middle Eastern theatre Caucasus Mesopotamia Sinai and Palestine Gallipoli Persia South Arabia
African theatre South-West West East North
Asian and Pacific theatre Siege of Tsingtao
Atlantic Ocean Mediterranean
Entente Powers   
Russian Empire/Republic French Empire: France, Vietnam British Empire: United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, Newfoundland, South Africa Italy Romania United States Serbia Portugal China Japan Belgium Montenegro Greece Armenia Brazil
Central Powers   
Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Bulgaria
Mexican Revolution (1910–1920) Italo-Turkish War (1911–1912) First Balkan War (1912–1913) Second Balkan War (1913)
Origins Sarajevo assassination July Crisis
Battle of the Frontiers Battle of Cer First Battle of the Marne Battle of Tannenberg Battle of Galicia Battle of the Masurian Lakes Battle of Kolubara Battle of Sarikamish Race to the Sea First Battle of Ypres
Second Battle of Ypres Battle of Gallipoli Battles of the Isonzo Great Retreat Conquest of Serbia Siege of Kut
Erzurum Offensive Battle of Verdun Lake Naroch Offensive Battle of Asiago Battle of Jutland Battle of the Somme Brusilov Offensive Battle of Romani Monastir Offensive Conquest of Romania
Capture of Baghdad First Battle of Gaza Second Battle of Arras Kerensky Offensive Third Battle of Ypres (Passchendaele) Battle of Caporetto Battle of Mughar Ridge Battle of Jerusalem Battle of Cambrai
Armistice of Erzincan Salonika front Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Spring Offensive First Transjordan Second Transjordan Hundred Days Offensive Battle of Baku Vardar Offensive Meuse-Argonne Offensive Battle of Megiddo Battle of Vittorio Veneto Armistice of Villa Giusti Armistice with Germany Armistice with the Ottoman Empire Battle of the Lys
Other conflicts   
Maritz Rebellion (1914–1915) Angola (1914–1915) Indo-German Conspiracy (1914–1919) Senussi Campaign (1915–1916) Easter Rising (1916) Russian Revolution (1917) Finnish Civil War (1918)
Russian Civil War (1917–1921) Ukrainian Civil War (1917–1921) Armenian–Azerbaijani War (1918–1920) Georgian–Armenian War (1918) German Revolution (1918–1919) Revolutions and interventions in Hungary (1918–1920) Hungarian–Romanian War (1918–1919) Greater Poland Uprising (1918–1919) Estonian War of Independence (1918–1920) Latvian War of Independence (1918–1920) Lithuanian Wars of Independence (1918–1920) Third Anglo-Afghan War (1919) Egyptian Revolution (1919) Polish–Ukrainian War (1918–1919) Polish–Soviet War (1919–1921) Irish War of Independence (1919–1921) Turkish War of Independence including the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1923) and the Turkish–Armenian War (1920) Polish–Lithuanian War (1920) Soviet–Georgian War (1921) Irish Civil War (1922–1923)
Military engagements Naval warfare Convoy system Air warfare Cryptography Geography's role Horse use Poison gas Railways Strategic bombing Technology Trench warfare Total war Christmas truce Last surviving veterans
Civilian impact /
atrocities /
Casualties 1918 flu pandemic Destruction of Kalisz Rape of Belgium Ottoman people (Armenian Genocide, Assyrian Genocide, Pontic Greek Genocide) Women's roles Popular culture German prisoners of war in the United States
Agreements /
Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire Sykes-Picot St.-Jean-de-Maurienne French-Armenian Damascus Paris Peace Conference Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Treaty of Lausanne Treaty of London Treaty of Neuilly Treaty of St. Germain Treaty of Sèvres Treaty of Trianon Treaty of Versailles
Aftermath "Fourteen Points" League of Nations World War I memorials

George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death. He was the last Emperor of India, and the first Head of the Commonwealth.

As the second son of King George V, he was not expected to inherit the throne and spent his early life in the shadow of his elder brother, Edward. He served in the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force during World War I, and after the war took on the usual round of public engagements. He married Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon in 1923, and they had two daughters, Elizabeth and Margaret.

George's elder brother ascended the throne as Edward VIII on the death of their father in 1936. However, less than a year later Edward revealed his desire to marry the divorced American socialite Wallis Simpson. British Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin advised Edward that for political and religious reasons he could not marry Mrs Simpson and remain king. Edward abdicated in order to marry, and George ascended the throne as the third monarch of the House of Windsor.

On the day of his accession, the Oireachtas, the parliament of the Irish Free State, removed the monarch from its constitution. Further events during George's reign accelerated the break-up of the British Empire and its transition into the Commonwealth of Nations. Three years after his accession, the Empire and Commonwealth, except the Irish Free State, was at war with Nazi Germany. In the next two years, war with Italy and Japan followed. Though Britain and its allies were ultimately victorious, the United States and the Soviet Union rose as pre-eminent world powers and the British Empire declined. After the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, his title of Emperor of India was abandoned in June 1948. Ireland was formally declared a republic in 1949, and India followed suit the following year. George adopted the new title of Head of the Commonwealth. He was beset by health problems in the later years of his reign. After his death, he was succeeded by his elder daughter, Elizabeth II.

Because of his stammer, Albert dreaded public speaking.[27] After his closing speech at the British Empire Exhibition at Wembley on 31 October 1925, one which was an ordeal for both him and the listeners,[28] he began to see Lionel Logue, an Australian-born speech therapist. The Duke and Logue practised breathing exercises, and the Duchess rehearsed with him patiently.[29] Subsequently, he was able to speak with less hesitation.[30] With his delivery improved, the Duke opened Parliament House in Canberra during a tour of the empire in 1927.[31] His journey by sea to Australia, New Zealand and Fiji took him via Jamaica, where Albert played doubles tennis partnered with a black man, which was unusual at the time and taken locally as a display of equality between races.[32]

The Duke and Duchess of York had two children: Elizabeth (called "Lilibet" by the family), and Margaret. The Duke and Duchess and their two daughters lived a relatively sheltered life at their London residence, 145 Piccadilly. One of the few stirs arose when the Canadian Prime Minister, R. B. Bennett, considered the Duke for Governor General of Canada in 1931—a proposal that the King rejected on the advice of his ministers

The King's Speech is a 2010 British historical drama film directed by Tom Hooper and written by David Seidler. Colin Firth plays King George VI who, to cope with a stammer, sees Lionel Logue, an Australian speech therapist played by Geoffrey Rush. The men become friends as they work together, and after his brother abdicates the throne, the new King relies on Logue to help him make a radio broadcast on Britain's declaration of war on Germany in 1939.

Seidler read about George VI's life after overcoming a stuttering condition he endured during his youth. He started writing about the men's relationship as early as the 1980s, but postponed work, at the Queen Mother's wishes, until her death in 2002. He later rewrote his screenplay for the stage to focus on the essential relationship between the two protagonists. Nine weeks before filming began, Logue's notebooks were discovered and quotations from them were incorporated into the script.

Principal photography took place in London and around Britain from November 2009 to January 2010. The opening scenes were filmed in Elland Road, Leeds, (for the since demolished Wembley Stadium), Buckingham Palace interiors in Lancaster House, and Ely Cathedral stood in for Westminster Abbey. The cinematography differs from other historical dramas; hard light was used to give the story a greater resonance and wider than normal lenses were used to recreate the King's feelings of constriction. A third technique Hooper employed was the off-centre framing of characters: in his first consultation with Logue, George VI is captured hunched on the side of a couch at the edge of the frame.

Released in the United Kingdom on 7 January 2011, The King's Speech was a major box office and critical success. Censors initially gave it adult ratings due to profanity, though these were later revised downwards after criticism by the makers and distributors in the UK and some instances of swearing were muted in the US. On a budget of GB£8 million, it earned over US$400 million internationally (£250 million).[5] It was widely praised by film critics for its visual style, art direction, and acting. Other commentators discussed the film's representation of historical detail, especially the reversal of Winston Churchill's opposition to abdication. The film received many awards and nominations, particularly for Colin Firth's performance; his Golden Globe Award for Best Actor was the sole win at that ceremony from seven nominations. The King's Speech won seven British Academy Film Awards, including Best Picture, Best Actor (Firth), Best Supporting Actor (Rush), and Best Supporting Actress (Bonham Carter). The film also won four Academy Awards: Best Picture, Best Director (Hooper), Best Actor (Firth), and Best Original Screenplay (Seidler).


Third choice to play the lead,[6] Colin Firth's performance earned him BAFTA & Academy awards, among others.

Colin Firth as King George VI / Prince Albert, Duke of York

Geoffrey Rush as Lionel Logue

Helena Bonham Carter as Elizabeth, Duchess of York / Queen Elizabeth

Guy Pearce as Edward, Prince of Wales / King Edward VIII

Michael Gambon as King George V

Timothy Spall as Winston Churchill

Jennifer Ehle as Myrtle Gruenert Logue

Derek Jacobi as Cosmo Gordon Lang (Archbishop of Canterbury)

Anthony Andrews as Stanley Baldwin

Eve Best as Wallis Simpson

Freya Wilson as Princess Elizabeth

Ramona Marquez as Princess Margaret

Claire Bloom as Queen Mary

Tim Downie as Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester

Maya Seidler as Mary, Princess Royal

Works directed by Tom Hooper

Theatrical films

Red Dust (2004) · The Damned United (2009) · The King's Speech (2010) · Les Misérables (2012)


EastEnders (1998–2000) · Love in a Cold Climate (2001) · Daniel Deronda (2002) · Elizabeth I (2005) · Longford (2006) · John Adams (2008)

[hide]v · d · eAcademy Award for Best Picture (2001–2020)

A Beautiful Mind (2001) · Chicago (2002) · The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003) · Million Dollar Baby (2004) · Crash (2005) · The Departed (2006) · No Country for Old Men (2007) · Slumdog Millionaire (2008) · The Hurt Locker (2009) · The King's Speech (2010)

Complete list · (1927–1940) · (1941–1960) · (1961–1980) · (1981–2000) · (2001–2020)

[hide]v · d · eBAFTA Award for Best Film (2001–2020)

Best Film

Gladiator (2001) · The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2002) · The Pianist (2003) · The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2004) · The Aviator (2005) · Brokeback Mountain (2006) · The Queen (2007) · Atonement (2008) · Slumdog Millionaire (2009) · The Hurt Locker (2010) · The King's Speech (2011)

Best Film Not in the

English Language

Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (2001) · Amores perros (2002) · Talk to Her (2003) · In This World (2004) · The Motorcycle Diaries (2005) · The Beat That My Heart Skipped (2006) · Pan's Labyrinth (2007) · The Lives of Others (2008) · I've Loved You So Long (2009) · A Prophet (2010) · The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2011)

Best British Film

Billy Elliot (2001) · Gosford Park (2002) · The Warrior (2003) · Touching the Void (2004) · My Summer of Love (2005) · Wallace & Gromit: The Curse of the Were-Rabbit (2006) · The Last King of Scotland (2007) · This Is England (2008) · Man on Wire (2009) · Fish Tank (2010) · The King's Speech (2011)

Complete list · (1948–1960) · (1961–1980) · (1981–2000) · (2001–2020)

[hide]v · d · eBIFA Award for Best British Independent Film

My Name Is Joe (1998) · Wonderland (1999) · Billy Elliot (2000) · Sexy Beast (2001) · Sweet Sixteen (2002) · Dirty Pretty Things (2003) · Vera Drake (2004) · The Constant Gardener (2005) · This Is England (2006) · Control (2007) · Slumdog Millionaire (2008) · Moon (2009) · The King's Speech (2010)

[hide]v · d · eScreen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture (2001–2010)

Gosford Park (2001) : Eileen Atkins, Bob Balaban, Alan Bates, Charles Dance, Stephen Fry, Michael Gambon, Richard E. Grant, Tom Hollander, Derek Jacobi, Kelly Macdonald, Helen Mirren, Jeremy Northam, Clive Owen, Ryan Phillippe, Maggie Smith, Geraldine Somerville, Kristin Scott Thomas, Sophie Thompson, Emily Watson, James Wilby

Chicago (2002) : Christine Baranski, Ekaterina Chtchelkanova, Taye Diggs, Denise Faye, Colm Feore, Richard Gere, Deidre Goodwin, Queen Latifah, Lucy Liu, Susan Misner, Mýa, John C. Reilly, Dominic West, Renée Zellweger, Catherine Zeta-Jones

The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003) : Sean Astin, Sean Bean, Cate Blanchett, Orlando Bloom, Billy Boyd, Bernard Hill, Ian Holm, Ian McKellen, Dominic Monaghan, Viggo Mortensen, John Noble, Miranda Otto, John Rhys-Davies, Andy Serkis, Liv Tyler, Karl Urban, Hugo Weaving, David Wenham, Elijah Wood

Sideways (2004) : Thomas Haden Church, Paul Giamatti, Virginia Madsen, Sandra Oh

Crash (2005) : Christopher "Ludacris" Bridges, Sandra Bullock, Don Cheadle, Matt Dillon, Jennifer Esposito, William Fichtner, Brendan Fraser, Terrence Howard, Thandie Newton, Ryan Phillippe, Larenz Tate

Little Miss Sunshine (2006) : Alan Arkin, Abigail Breslin, Steve Carell, Toni Collette, Paul Dano, Greg Kinnear

No Country for Old Men (2007) : Javier Bardem, Josh Brolin, Garret Dillahunt, Tess Harper, Woody Harrelson, Tommy Lee Jones, Kelly Macdonald

Slumdog Millionaire (2008) : Rubina Ali, Tanay Hemant Chheda, Ashutosh Lobo Gajiwala, Azharuddin Mohammed Ismail, Anil Kapoor, Irrfan Khan, Ayush Mahesh Khedekar, Tanvi Ganesh Lonkar, Madhur Mittal, Dev Patel, Freida Pinto

Inglourious Basterds (2009) : Daniel Brühl, August Diehl, Julie Dreyfus, Michael Fassbender, Sylvester Groth, Jacky Ido, Diane Kruger, Mélanie Laurent, Denis Menochet, Mike Myers, Brad Pitt, Eli Roth, Til Schweiger, Rod Taylor, Christoph Waltz, Martin Wuttke

The King's Speech (2010) : Anthony Andrews, Helena Bonham Carter, Jennifer Ehle, Colin Firth, Michael Gambon, Derek Jacobi, Guy Pearce, Geoffrey Rush, Timothy Spall

Complete list · (1995–2000) · (2001–2010)

[hide]v · d · eEdward VIII abdication crisis

Main protagonists

Edward VIII · Wallis Simpson

Other persons involved

Joseph Lyons (Prime Minister of Australia) · William Lyon Mackenzie King (Prime Minister of Canada) · Éamon de Valera (Prime Minister of the Irish Free State) · Michael Joseph Savage (Prime Minister of New Zealand) · J. B. M. Hertzog (Prime Minister of South Africa) · Stanley Baldwin (Prime Minister of the United Kingdom) · Cosmo Gordon Lang (Archbishop of Canterbury) · Alfred Blunt (Bishop of Bradford) · John Theodore Goddard (Mrs. Simpson's solicitor) · Alexander Hardinge (Edward VIII's private secretary) · Prince Albert, Duke of York (Edward VIII's brother, later George VI) · Queen Mary (Edward VIII's mother) · Ernest Aldrich Simpson (Mrs. Simpson's second husband)

Legal documents

Succession to the Throne Act 1937 (Canada) · Executive Authority (External Relations) Act 1936 (Ireland) · His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936 (UK)

Cultural depictions

Edward & Mrs. Simpson (1978) · Wallis & Edward (2005) · The King's Speech (2010) · W.E (2011)

Winners and nominees

In the list below, the winner of the award for each year is shown first, followed by the other nominees. Except for the early years (when the Academy used a non-calendar year), the year shown is the one in which the film first premiered in Los Angeles County, California; normally this is also the year of first release, but it may be the year after first release (as with Casablanca and, if the film-festival premiere is considered, Crash). This is the year before the ceremony at which the award is given; for example, a film exhibited theatrically during 2005 was eligible for consideration for the 2005 Best Picture Oscar, awarded in 2006. The number of the ceremony (1st, 2nd, etc.) appears in parentheses after the awards year, linked to the article (if any) on that ceremony. Each individual entry shows the title followed by the production company, and the producer. For foreign language films, the original title is also shown. Until 1950, the Best Picture award was given to the production company; from 1951 on, it has gone to the producer. The official name of the award has changed several times over the years:

1927/28 ? 1928/29: Outstanding Picture

1929/30 ? 1940: Outstanding Production

1941 ? 1943: Outstanding Motion Picture

1944 ? 1961: Best Motion Picture

1962 ? Present: Best Picture

For the first ceremony, three films were nominated for the award. For the following three years, five films were nominated for the award. This was expanded to eight in 1933, to ten in 1934, and to twelve in 1935, before being dropped back to ten in 1937. In 1945 it was reduced back to five. This number remained until 2010, when it was once again raised to ten.

For the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. For example, the 2nd Academy Awards presented on April 3, 1930, recognized films that were released between August 1, 1928 and July 31, 1929. Starting with the 7th Academy Awards, held in 1935, the period of eligibility became the full previous calendar year from January 1 to December 31.


1927/28[A] (1st)

Film Production Company(ies) Producer(s)

Wings Paramount, Famous Players-Lasky Lucien Hubbard

The Racket Caddo, Paramount Howard Hughes

Seventh Heaven Fox William Fox

1928/29 (2nd)

Film Production Company(ies) Producer(s)

The Broadway Melody Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer[L] Irving Thalberg & Lawrence Weingarten

Alibi Feature Productions, United Artists Roland West

The Hollywood Revue of 1929 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Harry Rapf

In Old Arizona Fox Winfield Sheehan[G]

The Patriot Paramount Ernst Lubitsch


1929/30[B] (3rd)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

All Quiet on the Western Front Universal Carl Laemmle, Jr.

The Big House Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Irving Thalberg

Disraeli Warner Bros. Jack Warner, Darryl F. Zanuck

The Divorcee Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Robert Z. Leonard

The Love Parade Paramount Ernst Lubitsch

1930/31 (4th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Cimarron RKO Radio William LeBaron

East Lynne Fox Winfield Sheehan[G]

The Front Page Caddo, United Artists Howard Hughes

Skippy Paramount Adolph Zukor

Trader Horn Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Irving G. Thalberg

1931/32 (5th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Grand Hotel Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Irving Thalberg

Arrowsmith Goldwyn, United Artists Samuel Goldwyn

Bad Girl Fox Winfield Sheehan[G]

The Champ Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer King Vidor

Five Star Final First National Hal B. Wallis

One Hour with You Paramount Ernst Lubitsch

Shanghai Express Paramount Adolph Zukor

The Smiling Lieutenant Paramount Ernst Lubitsch

1932/33 (6th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Cavalcade[H] Fox Winfield Sheehan[G]

A Farewell to Arms[H] Paramount Adolph Zukor

42nd Street Warner Bros. Darryl F. Zanuck

I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang Warner Bros. Hal B. Wallis

Lady for a Day Columbia Frank Capra

Little Women[H] RKO Radio Merian C. Cooper, Kenneth MacGowan

The Private Life of Henry VIII London Films, United Artists Alexander Korda

She Done Him Wrong Paramount William LeBaron

Smilin' Through Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Irving Thalberg

State Fair Fox Winfield Sheehan[G]

1934 (7th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

It Happened One Night[I] Columbia Harry Cohn

The Barretts of Wimpole Street[I] Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Irving Thalberg

Cleopatra Paramount Cecil B. DeMille

Flirtation Walk First National Jack L. Warner, Hal B. Wallis, Robert Lord

The Gay Divorcee RKO Radio Pandro S. Berman

Here Comes the Navy Warner Bros. Lou Edelman

The House of Rothschild[I] 20th Century, United Artists Darryl F. Zanuck, William Goetz, Raymond Griffith

Imitation of Life Universal John M. Stahl

One Night of Love Columbia Harry Cohn, Everett Riskin

The Thin Man Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Hunt Stromberg

Viva Villa! Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer David O. Selznick

The White Parade Fox Jesse L. Lasky

1935 (8th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Mutiny on the Bounty[J] Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Irving Thalberg, Albert Lewin

Alice Adams RKO Radio Pandro S. Berman

Broadway Melody of 1936 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer John W. Considine, Jr.

Captain Blood[J] Warner Bros., Cosmopolitan Hal B. Wallis, Harry Joe Brown, Gordon Hollingshead

David Copperfield Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer David O. Selznick

The Informer[J] RKO Radio Cliff Reid

The Lives of a Bengal Lancer Paramount Louis D. Lighton

A Midsummer Night's Dream Warner Bros. Henry Blanke

Les Misérables 20th Century, United Artists Darryl F. Zanuck

Naughty Marietta Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Hunt Stromberg

Ruggles of Red Gap Paramount Arthur Hornblow, Jr.

Top Hat RKO Radio Pandro S. Berman

1936 (9th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

The Great Ziegfeld Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Hunt Stromberg

Anthony Adverse Warner Bros. Henry Blanke

Dodsworth Goldwyn, United Artists Samuel Goldwyn, Merritt Hulbert

Libeled Lady Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Lawrence Weingarten

Mr. Deeds Goes to Town Columbia Frank Capra

Romeo and Juliet Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Irving Thalberg

San Francisco Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer John Emerson, Bernard H. Hyman

The Story of Louis Pasteur Warner Bros. Henry Blanke

A Tale of Two Cities Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer David O. Selznick

Three Smart Girls Universal Joe Pasternak, Charles R. Rogers

1937 (10th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

The Life of Emile Zola Warner Bros. Henry Blanke

The Awful Truth Columbia Leo McCarey, Everett Riskin

Captains Courageous Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Louis Lighton

Dead End Goldwyn, United Artists Samuel Goldwyn, Merritt Hulbert

The Good Earth Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Irving Thalberg, Albert Lewin

In Old Chicago 20th Century Fox Darryl F. Zanuck, Kenneth MacGowan

Lost Horizon Columbia Frank Capra

One Hundred Men and a Girl Universal Charles R. Rogers, Joe Pasternak

Stage Door RKO Radio Pandro S. Berman

A Star Is Born Selznick International, United Artists David O. Selznick

1938 (11th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

You Can't Take It With You Columbia Frank Capra

The Adventures of Robin Hood Warner Bros. Hal B. Wallis, Henry Blanke

Alexander's Ragtime Band 20th Century Fox Darryl F. Zanuck, Harry Joe Brown

Boys Town Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer John W. Considine, Jr.

The Citadel Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Victor Saville

Four Daughters Warner Bros., First National Hal B. Wallis, Henry Blanke

Grand Illusion R. A. O., World Pictures Frank Rollmer, Albert Pinkovitch

Jezebel Warner Bros. Hal B. Wallis, Henry Blanke

Pygmalion Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Gabriel Pascal

Test Pilot Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Louis Lighton

1939 (12th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Gone with the Wind Selznick, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer David O. Selznick

Dark Victory Warner Bros. David Lewis

Goodbye, Mr. Chips Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Victor Saville

Love Affair RKO Radio Leo McCarey

Mr. Smith Goes to Washington Columbia Frank Capra

Ninotchka Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Sidney Franklin

Of Mice and Men Roach, United Artists Lewis Milestone

Stagecoach United Artists Walter Wanger

The Wizard of Oz Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Mervyn LeRoy

Wuthering Heights Goldwyn, United Artists Samuel Goldwyn


1940 (13th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Rebecca Selznick, United Artists David O. Selznick

All This, and Heaven Too Warner Bros. Jack L. Warner, Hal B. Wallis, David Lewis

Foreign Correspondent Wanger, United Artists Walter Wanger

The Grapes of Wrath 20th Century Fox Darryl F. Zanuck, Nunnally Johnson

The Great Dictator Chaplin, United Artists Charlie Chaplin

Kitty Foyle RKO Radio David Hempstead

The Letter Warner Bros. Hal B. Wallis

The Long Voyage Home Argosy, Wanger, United Artists John Ford

Our Town Lesser, United Artists Sol Lesser

The Philadelphia Story Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Joseph L. Mankiewicz

1941[C] (14th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

How Green Was My Valley 20th Century Fox Darryl F. Zanuck

Blossoms in the Dust Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Irving Asher

Citizen Kane RKO Radio Orson Welles

Here Comes Mr. Jordan Columbia Everett Riskin

Hold Back the Dawn Paramount Arthur Hornblow, Jr.

The Little Foxes RKO Radio Samuel Goldwyn

The Maltese Falcon Warner Bros. Hal B. Wallis

One Foot in Heaven Warner Bros. Hal B. Wallis

Sergeant York Warner Bros. Hal B. Wallis, Jesse L. Lasky

Suspicion RKO Radio Alfred Hitchcock

1942 (15th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Mrs. Miniver Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Sidney Franklin

49th Parallel GFD, Columbia Michael Powell

Kings Row Warner Bros. Hal B. Wallis

The Magnificent Ambersons Mercury, RKO Radio Orson Welles

The Pied Piper 20th Century Fox Nunnally Johnson

The Pride of the Yankees Goldwyn, RKO Radio Samuel Goldwyn

Random Harvest Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Sidney Franklin

The Talk of the Town Columbia George Stevens

Wake Island Paramount Joseph Sistrom

Yankee Doodle Dandy Warner Bros. Jack Warner, Hal B. Wallis, William Cagney

1943 (16th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Casablanca Warner Bros. Hal B. Wallis

For Whom the Bell Tolls Paramount Sam Wood

Heaven Can Wait 20th Century Fox Ernst Lubitsch

The Human Comedy Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Clarence Brown

In Which We Serve United Artists Noël Coward

Madame Curie Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Sidney Franklin

The More the Merrier Columbia George Stevens

The Ox-Bow Incident 20th Century Fox Lamar Trotti

The Song of Bernadette 20th Century Fox William Perlberg

Watch on the Rhine Warner Bros. Hal B. Wallis

1944[D] (17th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Going My Way Paramount Leo McCarey

Double Indemnity Paramount Joseph Sistrom

Gaslight Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Arthur Hornblow, Jr.

Since You Went Away Selznick, United Artists David O. Selznick

Wilson 20th Century Fox Darryl F. Zanuck

1945 (18th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

The Lost Weekend Paramount Charles Brackett

Anchors Aweigh Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Joe Pasternak

The Bells of St. Mary's RKO Radio Leo McCarey

Mildred Pierce Warner Bros. Jerry Wald

Spellbound United Artists David O. Selznick

1946 (19th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

The Best Years of Our Lives RKO Radio Samuel Goldwyn

Henry V United Artists Laurence Olivier

It's a Wonderful Life RKO Radio Frank Capra

The Razor's Edge 20th Century Fox Darryl F. Zanuck

The Yearling Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Sidney Franklin

1947 (20th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Gentleman's Agreement 20th Century Fox Darryl F. Zanuck

The Bishop's Wife RKO Radio Samuel Goldwyn

Crossfire RKO Radio Adrian Scott

Great Expectations Rank-Cineguild, U-I Ronald Neame

Miracle on 34th Street 20th Century Fox William Perlberg

1948 (21st)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Hamlet J. Arthur Rank-Two Cities Films, Universal International Laurence Olivier

Johnny Belinda Warner Bros. Jerry Wald

The Red Shoes Rank Organisation, Powell and Pressburger, Eagle-Lion Films Michael Powell, Emeric Pressburger

The Snake Pit 20th Century Fox Anatole Litvak, Robert Bassler

The Treasure of the Sierra Madre Warner Bros. Henry Blanke

1949 (22nd)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

All the King's Men Rossen, Columbia Robert Rossen

Battleground Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Dore Schary

The Heiress Paramount William Wyler

A Letter to Three Wives 20th Century Fox Sol C. Siegel

Twelve O'Clock High 20th Century Fox Darryl F. Zanuck


1950 (23rd)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

All About Eve 20th Century Fox Darryl F. Zanuck

Born Yesterday Columbia S. Sylvan Simon

Father of the Bride Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Sam Zimbalist

King Solomon's Mines Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Sam Zimbalist

Sunset Boulevard Paramount Charles Brackett

1951 (24th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

An American in Paris Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Arthur Freed

Decision Before Dawn 20th Century Fox Anatole Litvak, Frank McCarthy

A Place in the Sun Paramount George Stevens

Quo Vadis Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Sam Zimbalist

A Streetcar Named Desire Warner Bros. Charles K. Feldman

1952 (25th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

The Greatest Show on Earth Paramount Cecil B. DeMille

High Noon United Artists Stanley Kramer

Ivanhoe Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pandro S. Berman

Moulin Rouge United Artists John Huston

The Quiet Man Republic John Ford, Merian C. Cooper

1953 (26th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

From Here to Eternity Columbia Buddy Adler

Julius Caesar Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer John Houseman

The Robe 20th Century Fox Frank Ross

Roman Holiday Paramount William Wyler

Shane Paramount George Stevens

1954 (27th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

On the Waterfront Columbia Sam Spiegel[N]

The Caine Mutiny Columbia Stanley Kramer

The Country Girl Paramount William Perlberg

Seven Brides for Seven Brothers Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Jack Cummings

Three Coins in the Fountain 20th Century Fox Sol C. Siegel

1955 (28th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Marty United Artists Harold Hecht

Love Is a Many-Splendored Thing 20th Century Fox Buddy Adler

Mister Roberts Warner Bros. Leland Hayward

Picnic Columbia Fred Kohlmar

The Rose Tattoo Paramount Hal B. Wallis

1956 (29th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Around the World in 80 Days United Artists Michael Todd

Friendly Persuasion Allied Artists William Wyler

Giant Warner Bros. George Stevens, Henry Ginsberg

The King and I 20th Century Fox Charles Brackett

The Ten Commandments Paramount Cecil B. DeMille

1957 (30th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

The Bridge on the River Kwai Columbia Sam Spiegel

Peyton Place 20th Century Fox Jerry Wald

Sayonara Warner Bros. William Goetz

12 Angry Men United Artists Henry Fonda, Reginald Rose

Witness for the Prosecution United Artists Arthur Hornblow, Jr.

1958 (31st)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Gigi Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Arthur Freed

Auntie Mame Warner Bros. Jack L. Warner

Cat on a Hot Tin Roof Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Lawrence Weingarten

The Defiant Ones Kramer, United Artists Stanley Kramer

Separate Tables United Artists Harold Hecht

1959 (32nd)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Ben-Hur Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Sam Zimbalist

Anatomy of a Murder Columbia Otto Preminger

The Diary of Anne Frank 20th Century Fox George Stevens

The Nun's Story Warner Bros. Henry Blanke

Room at the Top Continental, British Lion Films John Woolf, James Woolf


1960 (33rd)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

The Apartment United Artists Billy Wilder

The Alamo United Artists John Wayne

Elmer Gantry United Artists Bernard Smith

Sons and Lovers 20th Century Fox Jerry Wald

The Sundowners Warner Bros. Fred Zinnemann

1961 (34th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

West Side Story United Artists Robert Wise

Fanny Warner Bros. Joshua Logan

The Guns of Navarone Columbia Carl Foreman

The Hustler 20th Century Fox Robert Rossen

Judgment at Nuremberg United Artists Stanley Kramer

1962[E] (35th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Lawrence of Arabia Columbia Sam Spiegel

The Longest Day 20th Century Fox Darryl F. Zanuck

The Music Man Warner Bros. Morton DaCosta

Mutiny on the Bounty Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Aaron Rosenberg

To Kill a Mockingbird U-I Alan J. Pakula

1963 (36th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Tom Jones United Artists Tony Richardson

America, America Warner Bros. Elia Kazan

Cleopatra 20th Century Fox Walter Wanger

How the West Was Won Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Cinerama Bernard Smith

Lilies of the Field United Artists Ralph Nelson

1964 (37th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

My Fair Lady Warner Bros. Jack L. Warner

Becket Paramount Hal B. Wallis

Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb Columbia Stanley Kubrick

Mary Poppins Walt Disney Productions Walt Disney, Bill Walsh

Zorba the Greek 20th Century Fox Michael Cacoyannis

1965 (38th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

The Sound of Music 20th Century Fox Robert Wise

Darling Embassy Joseph Janni

Doctor Zhivago Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Carlo Ponti

Ship of Fools Columbia Stanley Kramer

A Thousand Clowns United Artists Fred Coe

1966 (39th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

A Man for All Seasons Columbia Fred Zinnemann

Alfie Paramount Lewis Gilbert

The Russians Are Coming, the Russians Are Coming United Artists Norman Jewison

The Sand Pebbles 20th Century Fox Robert Wise

Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Warner Bros. Ernest Lehman

1967 (40th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

In the Heat of the Night United Artists Walter Mirisch

Bonnie and Clyde Warner Bros., Seven Arts Warren Beatty

Doctor Dolittle 20th Century Fox Arthur P. Jacobs

The Graduate Embassy Lawrence Turman

Guess Who's Coming to Dinner Columbia Stanley Kramer

1968 (41st)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Oliver! Columbia John Woolf

Funny Girl Columbia Ray Stark

The Lion in Winter Avco Embassy Martin Poll

Rachel, Rachel Warner Bros. Paul Newman

Romeo and Juliet Paramount Anthony Havelock-Allan, John Brabourne

1969 (42nd)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Midnight Cowboy United Artists Jerome Hellman

Anne of the Thousand Days Universal Hal B. Wallis

Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid 20th Century Fox John Foreman

Hello, Dolly! 20th Century Fox Ernest Lehman

Z[K] Cinema V Jacques Perrin, Ahmed Rachedi


1970 (43rd)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Patton 20th Century Fox Frank McCarthy

Airport Universal Ross Hunter

Five Easy Pieces Columbia Bob Rafelson, Richard Wechsler

Love Story Paramount Howard G. Minsky

MASH 20th Century Fox Ingo Preminger

1971 (44th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

The French Connection 20th Century Fox Philip D'Antoni

A Clockwork Orange Warner Bros. Stanley Kubrick

Fiddler on the Roof United Artists Norman Jewison

The Last Picture Show Columbia Stephen J. Friedman

Nicholas and Alexandra Columbia Sam Spiegel

1972 (45th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

The Godfather Paramount Albert S. Ruddy

Cabaret Allied Artists Cy Feuer

Deliverance Warner Bros. John Boorman

The Emigrants[K] Warner Bros. Bengt Forslund

Sounder 20th Century Fox Robert B. Radnitz

1973 (46th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

The Sting Universal Tony Bill, Michael Phillips, Julia Phillips

American Graffiti Lucasfilm, Universal Francis Ford Coppola, Gary Kurtz

Cries and Whispers[K] New World Pictures Ingmar Bergman

The Exorcist Warner Bros. William Peter Blatty

A Touch of Class Avco Embassy Melvin Frank

1974 (47th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

The Godfather Part II[O] Paramount Francis Ford Coppola, Gray Frederickson, Fred Roos

Chinatown Paramount Robert Evans

The Conversation Paramount Francis Ford Coppola

Lenny United Artists Marvin Worth

The Towering Inferno 20th Century Fox, Warner Bros. Irwin Allen

1975 (48th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest United Artists Saul Zaentz[N], Michael Douglas

Barry Lyndon Warner Bros. Stanley Kubrick

Dog Day Afternoon Warner Bros. Martin Bregman, Martin Elfand

Jaws Universal Richard D. Zanuck

Nashville Paramount Robert Altman

1976 (49th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Rocky United Artists Irwin Winkler, Robert Chartoff

All the President's Men Warner Bros. Walter Coblenz

Bound for Glory United Artists Robert F. Blumofe, Harold Leventhal

Network Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, United Artists Howard Gottfried

Taxi Driver Columbia Michael Phillips, Julia Phillips

1977 (50th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Annie Hall United Artists Charles H. Joffe

The Goodbye Girl Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Warner Bros. Ray Stark

Julia 20th Century Fox Richard Roth

Star Wars Lucasfilm, 20th Century Fox Gary Kurtz

The Turning Point 20th Century Fox Herbert Ross, Arthur Laurents

1978 (51st)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

The Deer Hunter Universal Barry Spikings, Michael Deeley, Michael Cimino, John Peverall

Coming Home United Artists Jerome Hellman

Heaven Can Wait Paramount Warren Beatty

Midnight Express Columbia Alan Marshall, David Puttnam

An Unmarried Woman 20th Century Fox Paul Mazursky, Tony Ray

1979 (52nd)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Kramer vs. Kramer Columbia Stanley R. Jaffe

All That Jazz 20th Century Fox Robert Alan Aurthur

Apocalypse Now United Artists Francis Ford Coppola, Fred Roos, Gray Frederickson, Tom Sternberg

Breaking Away 20th Century Fox Peter Yates

Norma Rae 20th Century Fox Tamara Asseyev, Alex Rose


1980 (53rd)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Ordinary People Paramount Ronald L. Schwary

Coal Miner's Daughter Universal Bernard Schwartz

The Elephant Man Paramount Jonathan Sanger

Raging Bull United Artists Irwin Winkler, Robert Chartoff

Tess Columbia Claude Berri, Timothy Burrill

1981 (54th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Chariots of Fire The Ladd Company, Warner Bros. David Puttnam

Atlantic City Paramount Denis Héroux

On Golden Pond ITC, Universal Bruce Gilbert

Raiders of the Lost Ark Lucasfilm, Paramount Frank Marshall

Reds Paramount Warren Beatty

1982 (55th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Gandhi Columbia Richard Attenborough

E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial Universal Steven Spielberg, Kathleen Kennedy[M]

Missing Universal Edward Lewis, Mildred Lewis

Tootsie Columbia Sydney Pollack, Dick Richards

The Verdict 20th Century Fox Richard D. Zanuck, David Brown

1983 (56th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Terms of Endearment Paramount James L. Brooks

The Big Chill Columbia Michael Shamberg

The Dresser Columbia Peter Yates

The Right Stuff Warner Bros., The Ladd Company Irwin Winkler, Robert Chartoff

Tender Mercies EMI Films, Universal Philip S. Hobel

1984 (57th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Amadeus Orion Saul Zaentz

The Killing Fields Warner Bros. David Puttnam

A Passage to India Columbia John Brabourne, Richard Goodwin

Places in the Heart Tri-Star Arlene Donovan

A Soldier's Story Columbia Norman Jewison, Ronald L. Schwary, Patrick Palmer

1985 (58th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Out of Africa Universal Sydney Pollack

The Color Purple Warner Bros. Steven Spielberg, Kathleen Kennedy, Frank Marshall, Quincy Jones

Kiss of the Spider Woman Island Alive David Weisman

Prizzi's Honor 20th Century Fox, ABC Motion Pictures John Foreman

Witness Paramount Edward S. Feldman

1986 (59th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Platoon Orion Arnold Kopelson

Children of a Lesser God Paramount Burt Sugarman, Patrick J. Palmer

Hannah and Her Sisters Orion Robert Greenhut

The Mission Warner Bros. Fernando Ghia, David Puttnam

A Room with a View Cinecom Ismail Merchant

1987 (60th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

The Last Emperor[O] Columbia Jeremy Thomas

Broadcast News 20th Century Fox James L. Brooks

Fatal Attraction Paramount Stanley R. Jaffe, Sherry Lansing

Hope and Glory Columbia John Boorman

Moonstruck Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Patrick J. Palmer, Norman Jewison

1988 (61st)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Rain Man United Artists Mark Johnson

The Accidental Tourist Warner Bros. Lawrence Kasdan, Charles Okun, Michael Grillo

Dangerous Liaisons Warner Bros. Norma Heyman, Hank Moonjean

Mississippi Burning Orion Frederick Zollo, Robert F. Colesberry

Working Girl 20th Century Fox Douglas Wick

1989 (62nd)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Driving Miss Daisy Warner Bros. Richard D. Zanuck, Lili Fini Zanuck

Born on the Fourth of July Universal A. Kitman Ho, Oliver Stone

Dead Poets Society Touchstone Pictures Steven Haft, Paul Junger Witt, Tony Thomas

Field of Dreams Universal Lawrence Gordon, Charles Gordon

My Left Foot Miramax Noel Pearson


1990 (63rd)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Dances with Wolves Orion Jim Wilson, Kevin Costner

Awakenings Columbia Walter F. Parkes, Lawrence Lasker

Ghost Paramount Lisa Weinstein

The Godfather Part III Paramount Francis Ford Coppola

Goodfellas Warner Bros. Irwin Winkler

1991 (64th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

The Silence of the Lambs Orion Edward Saxon, Kenneth Utt, Ron Bozman

Beauty and the Beast Disney Don Hahn

Bugsy TriStar Mark Johnson, Barry Levinson, Warren Beatty

JFK Warner Bros. A. Kitman Ho, Oliver Stone

The Prince of Tides Columbia Barbra Streisand, Andrew S. Karsch

1992 (65th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Unforgiven Warner Bros. Clint Eastwood

The Crying Game Miramax Stephen Woolley

A Few Good Men Columbia, Castle Rock Entertainment Rob Reiner, Andrew Scheinman

Howards End Sony Pictures Classics Ismail Merchant

Scent of a Woman Universal Martin Brest

1993 (66th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Schindler's List Universal Steven Spielberg, Gerald R. Molen, Branko Lustig

The Fugitive Warner Bros. Arnold Kopelson

In the Name of the Father Universal Jim Sheridan

The Piano Miramax Jane Campion

The Remains of the Day Columbia Mike Nichols, John Calley, Ismail Merchant

1994 (67th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Forrest Gump Paramount Wendy Finerman, Steve Tisch, Steve Starkey

Four Weddings and a Funeral PolyGram Filmed Entertainment, Gramercy Duncan Kenworthy

Pulp Fiction Miramax Lawrence Bender

Quiz Show Hollywood Pictures Michael Jacobs, Julian Krainin, Michael Nozick, Robert Redford

The Shawshank Redemption Columbia, Castle Rock Entertainment Niki Marvin

1995 (68th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Braveheart Paramount, Icon, 20th Century Fox Mel Gibson, Alan Ladd, Jr., Bruce Davey

Apollo 13 Universal, Imagine Entertainment Brian Grazer

Babe Universal Bill Miller, George Miller, Doug Mitchell

The Postman (Il Postino)[K] Miramax Mario Cecchi Gori, Vittorio Cecchi Gori, Gaetano Daniele

Sense and Sensibility Columbia Lindsay Doran

1996 (69th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

The English Patient Miramax Saul Zaentz

Fargo PolyGram Filmed Entertainment, Gramercy Ethan Coen

Jerry Maguire Gracie Films, TriStar James L. Brooks, Laurence Mark, Richard Sakai, Cameron Crowe

Secrets & Lies October Films Simon Channing-Williams

Shine Fine Line Features Jane Scott

1997 (70th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Titanic Lightstorm Entertainment, 20th Century Fox, Paramount James Cameron, Jon Landau

As Good as It Gets TriStar James L. Brooks, Bridget Johnson, Kristi Zea

The Full Monty Fox Searchlight Umberto Pasolini

Good Will Hunting Miramax Lawrence Bender

L.A. Confidential Warner Bros. Curtis Hanson, Arnon Milchan, Michael G. Nathanson

1998 (71st)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Shakespeare in Love Miramax/Universal David Parfitt, Donna Gigliotti, Harvey Weinstein, Edward Zwick, Marc Norman

Elizabeth PolyGram Filmed Entertainment, Gramercy Shekhar Kapur, Alison Owen, Eric Fellner, Tim Bevan

Life Is Beautiful[K] Miramax Elda Ferri, Gianluigi Braschi

Saving Private Ryan DreamWorks, Paramount Steven Spielberg, Ian Bryce, Mark Gordon, Gary Levinsohn

The Thin Red Line 20th Century Fox Robert Michael Geisler, John Roberdeau, Grant Hill

1999 (72nd)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

American Beauty DreamWorks Bruce Cohen, Dan Jinks

The Cider House Rules Miramax Richard N. Gladstein

The Green Mile Castle Rock Entertainment, Warner Bros. Frank Darabont, David Valdes

The Insider Touchstone Pictures Pieter Jan Brugge, Michael Mann

The Sixth Sense Hollywood Pictures Frank Marshall, Kathleen Kennedy, Barry Mendel, M. Night Shyamalan


2000 (73rd)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Gladiator DreamWorks, Universal Douglas Wick, David Franzoni, Branko Lustig

Chocolat Miramax David Brown, Kit Golden, Leslie Holleran

Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon[K] Sony Pictures Classics William Kong, Hsu Li Kong, Ang Lee

Erin Brockovich Universal, Columbia Danny DeVito, Michael Shamberg, Stacey Sher

Traffic USA Films Edward Zwick, Marshall Herskovitz, Laura Bickford

2001 (74th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

A Beautiful Mind Universal, DreamWorks Brian Grazer, Ron Howard

Gosford Park USA Films Robert Altman, Bob Balaban, David Levy

In the Bedroom Miramax Graham Leader, Ross Katz, Todd Field

The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring New Line Cinema Peter Jackson, Fran Walsh, Barrie M. Osborne

Moulin Rouge! 20th Century Fox Martin Brown, Baz Luhrmann, Fred Baron

2002 (75th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Chicago Miramax Martin Richards

Gangs of New York Miramax Alberto Grimaldi, Harvey Weinstein

The Hours Paramount, Miramax Scott Rudin, Robert Fox

The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers New Line Cinema Barrie M. Osborne, Fran Walsh, Peter Jackson

The Pianist Focus Features Roman Polanski, Robert Benmussa, Alain Sarde

2003 (76th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King New Line Cinema Barrie M. Osborne, Peter Jackson, Fran Walsh

Lost in Translation Focus Features Ross Katz, Sofia Coppola

Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World 20th Century Fox, Miramax, Universal Samuel Goldwyn, Jr., Peter Weir, Duncan Henderson

Mystic River Warner Bros. Robert Lorenz, Judie G. Hoyt, Clint Eastwood

Seabiscuit Universal, DreamWorks Kathleen Kennedy, Frank Marshall, Gary Ross

2004 (77th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Million Dollar Baby Warner Bros. Clint Eastwood, Albert S. Ruddy, Tom Rosenberg

The Aviator Warner Bros., Miramax Michael Mann, Graham King

Finding Neverland Miramax Richard N. Gladstein, Nellie Bellflower

Ray Universal Taylor Hackford, Stuart Benjamin, Howard Baldwin

Sideways Fox Searchlight Michael London

2005 (78th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Crash Lions Gate Entertainment Paul Haggis, Cathy Schulman

Brokeback Mountain Focus Features Diana Ossana, James Schamus

Capote United Artists Caroline Baron, William Vince, Michael Ohoven

Good Night, and Good Luck Warner Bros. Grant Heslov

Munich DreamWorks, Universal Steven Spielberg, Kathleen Kennedy, Barry Mendel

2006 (79th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

The Departed Warner Bros. Graham King

Babel Paramount Vantage Alejandro González Iñárritu, Steve Golin, Jon Kilik

Letters from Iwo Jima[K] Warner Bros. Clint Eastwood, Steven Spielberg, Robert Lorenz

Little Miss Sunshine Fox Searchlight David T. Friendly, Peter Saraf, Marc Turtletaub

The Queen Miramax Andy Harries, Christine Langan, Tracey Seaward

2007 (80th)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

No Country for Old Men Miramax, Paramount Vantage Scott Rudin, Ethan Coen, Joel Coen

Atonement Focus Features Tim Bevan, Eric Fellner, Paul Webster

Juno Fox Searchlight Lianne Halfon, Mason Novick, Russell Smith

Michael Clayton Warner Bros. Jennifer Fox, Kerry Orent, Sydney Pollack

There Will Be Blood Paramount Vantage, Miramax Paul Thomas Anderson, Daniel Lupi, JoAnne Sellar

2008 (81st)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

Slumdog Millionaire[O] Fox Searchlight, Warner Bros. Christian Colson

The Curious Case of Benjamin Button Paramount, Warner Bros. Kathleen Kennedy, Frank Marshall, Cean Chaffin

Frost/Nixon Universal Ron Howard, Brian Grazer, Eric Fellner

Milk Focus Features Bruce Cohen, Dan Jinks

The Reader The Weinstein Co. Anthony Minghella, Sydney Pollack, Donna Gigliotti, Redmond Morris

2009 (82nd)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

The Hurt Locker Summit Entertainment Kathryn Bigelow, Mark Boal, Nicolas Chartier, Greg Shapiro

Avatar Lightstorm Entertainment, 20th Century Fox James Cameron, Jon Landau

The Blind Side Warner Bros. Gil Netter, Andrew A. Kosove, Broderick Johnson

District 9 TriStar Peter Jackson, Carolynne Cunningham

An Education Sony Pictures Classics Finola Dwyer, Amanda Posey

Inglourious Basterds The Weinstein Co., Universal Lawrence Bender

Precious Lions Gate Entertainment Lee Daniels, Sarah Siegel-Magness, Gary Magness

A Serious Man Focus Features Joel Coen, Ethan Coen

Up Disney/Pixar Jonas Rivera

Up in the Air Paramount Daniel Dubiecki, Ivan Reitman, Jason Reitman


2010 (83rd)

Film Production company(s) Producer(s)

The King's Speech The Weinstein Co. Iain Canning, Emile Sherman and Gareth Unwin

Black Swan Fox Searchlight Scott Franklin, Mike Medavoy and Brian Oliver

The Fighter Paramount David Hoberman, Todd Lieberman and Mark Wahlberg

Inception Warner Bros. Christopher Nolan and Emma Thomas

The Kids Are All Right Focus Features Gary Gilbert, Jeffrey Levy-Hinte and Celine Rattray

127 Hours Fox Searchlight Danny Boyle and Christian Colson

The Social Network Columbia Dana Brunetti, Ceán Chaffin, Michael De Luca and Scott Rudin

Toy Story 3 Disney/Pixar Darla K. Anderson

True Grit Paramount Ethan Coen, Joel Coen, and Scott Rudin

Winter's Bone Roadside Attractions Alix Madigan and Anne Rosellini

The British Royal Family

HM The Queen

Philip HRH The Duke of Edinburgh

Charles HRH The Prince of Wales

Camilla HRH The Duchess of Cornwall

Princess Dianna

William HRH The Duke of Cambridge

Kathryn HRH The Duchess of Cambridge

HRH Prince Harry of Wales

Andrew HRH The Duke of York

HRH Princess Beatrice of York

HRH Princess Eugenie of York

Edward HRH The Earl of Wessex

Anne HRH The Princess Royal

British Monarchs

he Normans

(1066 - 1154)

King William I, the Conqueror 1066 - 1087

King Henry I 1100 - 1135

King Stephen 1135 - 1154

Empress Matilda 1141


(1154 - 1399) 

King Henry II 1154 - 1189

King Richard I the Lionheart 1189 - 1199

King John 1 1199 - 1216

King Henry III 1216 - 1272

King Edward I 1272 - 1307

King Edward II 1307 - 1327

King Edward III 1327 - 1377

Richard II 1377 - 1399

The House of Lancaster

(1399 - 1461)

Henry IV 1399 - 1413

Henry V 1413 - 1422

Henry VI 1422 - 1461, 1470 - 1471

The House of York

(1461 - 1485)

King Edward IV 1461 -1470, 1471 - 1483

King Edward V 1483 - 1483

King Richard III 1483 - 1485

The Tudors

(1485 -1603)

King Henry VII 1485 - 1509

King Henry VIII 1509 - 1547

King Edward VI 1547 - 1553

Jane Grey 1554

Queen Mary I (Bloody Mary) 1553 - 1558

Queen Elizabeth I 1558 - 1603

The Stuarts

(1603 - 1649) (1660 - 1714)

James I 1603 - 1625

Charles I 1625 - 1649

Charles II 1660 - 1685

James II 1685 - 1688

William III 1688 - 1702 and Queen Mary II 1688 - 1694

Queen Anne 1702 - 1714

The House of Hanoverians

(1714 -1901)

King George I 1714 - 1727

King George II 1727 - 1760

King George III 1760 - 1820

King George IV 1820 - 1830

King William IV 1830 - 1837

Queen Victoria 1837 - 1901

Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and The Windsors

(1901 -1910) (1910 - Today)

King Edward VII 1901 - 1910

King George V 1910 - 1936

King Edward VIII June 1936

King George VI 1936 - 1952

Queen Elizabeth II 1952 - present day

Notable cigarette brands




Army Club


Black Devils





Benson & Hedges



Carlton (cigarette)






du Maurier



Export A




Gold Flake



Lambert and Butler



Lucky Strike





Mild Seven


Monte Carlo

Nat Sherman

Natural American Spirit



Old Gold

Pall Mall


Peter Stuyvesant

Philip Morris


Route 66











Virginia Slims



Postage & PackingUnited KingdomInternational

Payment Options:
Integrated OnlineYou can pay with your Debit or Credit card using EasyPay, our in-house payment serviceYou can pay with your Debit or Credit card using SecurePay, our in-house escrow service
© CQout Ltd., 1999-2017 home | help | services | search | listings | register | affiliates | RightsWatch | about us | press | Blog | contact us
All Rights Reserved. Use of this website constitutes acceptance of our terms & conditions and site rules.