Victoria halfpenny 1860
The halfpennies of Queen Victoria's long reign (1837–1901) can be basically divided into the copper issue of 1838–1860, where the coins were 9.1–9.5 grams in weight and 28 millimetres in diameter, and which were very similar to the halfpennies of her two predecessors (with the obvious substitution of REG for REX on the reverse), and the bronze issue of 1860–1901 (which itself is split between 1894 and 1895 into coins displaying the "young head" and the "old head" of the Queen). The bronze coins weighed 5.5–5.8 grams and were 25 millimetres in diameter. The bronze coins also featured the denomination HALF PENNY on the reverse for the first time, with the date in the exergue beneath Britannia. The inscription on the obverse of the "young head" coins reads VICTORIA D G BRITT REG F D, while on the "old head" it is VICTORIA DEI GRA BRITT REGINA FID DEF IND IMP. Some 1874–1876 and 1881–1882 halfpennies have an "H" mintmark underneath the date, indicating that they were produced at the Heaton mint in Birmingham. Halfpennies were produced in all years of Victoria's reign except 1837, 1840, 1842, 1849 and 1850.
Halfpennies weighing 5.67 grams (one fifth of an ounce) and of 1 inch (25.4 millimetres) diameter (which was to remain the standard size of the coin for the remainder of its existence) were minted in all years of King Edward VII's reign (1901–1910) except 1901. They are similar to the last issues of Queen Victoria except for the king's right-facing bust on the obverse, with the inscription EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA BRITT OMN REX FID DEF IND IMP, and also are extremely reminiscent of the contemporary penny.
The reign of King George V produced halfpennies to an unchanged design every year between 1911 and 1936. The obverse shows a left-facing portrait of the king by Sir Bertram Mackennal, with the inscription GEORGIVS V DEI GRA BRITT OMN REX FID DEF IND IMP, and the usual right-facing Britannia on the reverse. Unlike some of the pennies of this reign, no halfpennies have mintmarks from provincial mints. Halfpennies of this reign suffer somewhat from "ghosting", caused by production problems when the image of one side partly comes through to the other; efforts were made to solve the problem with a modification of the king's effigy in 1925, but the problem wasn't finally solved until a second modification in 1928.
A halfpenny exists for King Edward VIII, although strictly speaking it is a pattern which would have been awaiting royal approval about the time that the king abdicated in December 1936. The king insisted that his left profile be used on the coinage instead of the right, which would have been used if he had followed the alternating tradition going back to King Charles II; the obverse has the inscription EDWARDVS VIII D G BR OMN REX F D IND IMP, but in a complete break from tradition Britannia was dropped from the reverse for the first time since 1672, and replaced by a sailing ship, said to represent Sir Francis Drake's Golden Hind. This reverse remained in use for the remainder of the coins' existence.
Halfpennies of a similar design to his brother's were produced in each year of the reign of King George VI. The inscription on the obverse reads GEORGIVS VI D G BR OMN REX F D IND IMP until 1948, then GEORGIVS VI D G BR OMN REX FIDEI DEF. There are reported to be slight differences in the reverse – the size and positioning of the ship, the inscription HALF PENNY and the date under the ship – from year to year, but numismatists differ in opinion as to whether this is significant enough to count as a design variation each year, or just one design for the whole reign.
Unlike the penny, Queen Elizabeth II's reign produced halfpennies every year between 1953 and 1967, except for 1961. The reverse was the same as before, while the obverse featured the queen's head by Mary Gillick, with the inscription ELIZABETH II DEI GRA BRITT OMN REGINA F D in 1953, and ELIZABETH II DEI GRATIA REGINA F D for the rest of the reign.
The pre-decimal halfpenny ceased to be legal tender in 1969.
The new two pence coin, introduced when decimalisation of British coinage took effect in 1971, is essentially the same size as the halfpenny coin as it had most recently existed.
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Broadhalfpenny Down, a place of great significance in the history of cricket, got its name from the coin.
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The Georgian architecture of The Circus, Bath, built between 1754 and 1768.
##George I of Great Britain
##George II of Great Britain
##George III of the United Kingdom
##George IV of the United Kingdom
##(William IV of the United Kingdom)
Periods in English history
The Georgian era of British history is a period which takes its name from, and is normally defined as spanning the reigns of, the first four Hanoverian kings of Great Britain (later the United Kingdom), who were all named 'George': George I, George II, George III and George IV. The era covers the period from 1714 to 1830, with the sub-period of the Regency defined by the Regency of George IV as Prince of Wales during the illness of his father George III. The last Hanoverian monarch of the UK was William's niece Queen Victoria who is the namesake of the following historical era, the Victorian, which is usually defined as occurring from the start of her reign, when William died, and continuing until her death.
The term "Georgian" is typically used in the contexts of social history and architecture.
Georgian society and its preoccupations were well portrayed in the novels of writers such as Henry Fielding, Mary Shelley and Jane Austen, characterised by the architecture of Robert Adam, John Nash and James Wyatt and the emergence of the Gothic Revival style, which hearkened back to a supposed golden age of building design.
The flowering of the arts was most vividly shown in the emergence of the Romantic poets, principally through Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Wordsworth, Percy Bysshe Shelley, William Blake, John Keats, Lord Byron and Robert Burns. Their work ushered in a new era of poetry, characterized by vivid and colourful language, evocative of elevating ideas and themes.
The paintings of Thomas Gainsborough, Sir Joshua Reynolds and the young J. M. W. Turner and John Constable illustrated the changing world of the Georgian period - as did the work of designers like Capability Brown, the landscape designer.
Religious and social change
It was a time of immense social change in Britain, with the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution which began the process of intensifying class divisions, and the emergence of rival political parties like the Whigs and Tories.
In rural areas the Agricultural Revolution saw huge changes to the movement of people and the decline of small communities, the growth of the cities and the beginnings of an integrated transportation system but, nevertheless, as rural towns and villages declined and work became scarce there was a huge increase in emigration to Canada, the North American colonies (which became the United States during the period) and other parts of the British Empire.
Social reform under politicians such as Robert Peel and campaigners like William Wilberforce, Thomas Clarkson and members of the Clapham Sect began to bring about radical change in areas such as the abolition of slavery, prison reform and social justice. An Evangelical revival was seen in the Church of England with men such as George Whitefield, John Wesley (later to found the Methodists), Charles Wesley, Griffith Jones, Howell Harris, Daniel Rowland, William Cowper, John Newton, Thomas Scott, and Charles Simeon. It also saw the rise of Non-conformists and various Dissenting groups such as the Reformed Baptists with John Gill, Augustus Toplady, John Fawcett, and William Carey.
Philanthropists and writers such as Hannah More, Thomas Coram, Robert Raikes and Beilby Porteus, Bishop of London, began to address the social ills of the day, and saw the founding of hospitals, Sunday schools and orphanages.
Fine examples of distinctive Georgian architecture are Edinburgh's New Town, Bath, Georgian Dublin, Grainger Town in Newcastle Upon Tyne as well as Bristol.
The Georgian era was moreover a time of British expansion throughout the world. There was continual warfare, including the Seven Years War, known in America as the French and Indian War (1756-1763), American Revolution (1775-1783), the Irish Rebellion of 1798, and the Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815). The British won all the wars except for the American Revolution, where the combined weight of the United States, France, Spain and the Netherlands overwhelmed Britain, which stood alone without allies.
Mercantilism was the basic policy imposed by Britain on its colonies. Mercantilism meant that the government and the merchants became partners with the goal of increasing political power and private wealth, to the exclusion of other empires. The government protected its merchants—and kept others out—by trade barriers, regulations, and subsidies to domestic industries in order to maximize exports from and minimize imports to the realm. The government had to fight smuggling—which became a favorite American technique in the 18th century to circumvent the restrictions on trading with the French, Spanish or Dutch. The goal of mercantilism was to run trade surpluses, so that gold and silver would pour into London. The government took its share through duties and taxes, with the remainder going to merchants in Britain. The government spent much of its revenue on a superb Royal Navy, which not only protected the British colonies but threatened the colonies of the other empires, and sometimes seized them. Thus the British Navy captured New Amsterdam (New York) in 1664. The colonies were captive markets for British industry, and the goal was to enrich the mother country.
The loss of some of the American Colonies in the American War of Independence was regarded as a national disaster and was seen by some foreign observers as heralding the end of Britain as a great power. In Europe, the wars with France dragged on for nearly a quarter of a century, 1793-1815. Victory over Napoleon at the Battle of Trafalgar (1805) and the Battle of Waterloo (1815) under Admiral Lord Nelson and the Duke of Wellington brought a sense of triumphalism and political reaction.
The expansion of empire brought fame to statesmen and explorers such as Clive of India and Captain Cook, and sowed the seeds of the worldwide British Empire of the Victorian and Edwardian eras which were to follow.
Politics and social revolt
With the ending of the War with France, the United Kingdom entered a period of greater economic depression and political uncertainty, characterised by social discontent and unrest. The Radical political party published a leaflet called The Political Register, also known as "The Two Penny Trash" to its rivals. The so-called March of the Blanketeers saw 400 spinners and weavers march from Manchester to London in March 1817 to hand the Government a petition. The Luddites destroyed and damaged machinery in the industrial north-west of England. The Peterloo Massacre in 1819 began as a protest rally which saw 60,000 people gathering to protest about their living standards, but was quelled by military action and saw eleven people killed and 400 wounded. The Cato Street Conspiracy of 1820 sought to blow up the Cabinet and then move on to storm the Tower of London and overthrow the government. This too was thwarted, with the conspirators executed or transported to Australia.
1714Upon the death of his second cousin Queen Anne, George Louis, Elector of Hannover succeeds as the new King, George I, of Great Britain and Ireland, the former of which had itself been established in 1706. This is the beginning of the House of Hanover's reign over the British Crown.1715The Whig Party wins the British Parliamentary Election for the House of Commons. This was the party that was in general opposition of the policies of the King.1727George I dies and his son George, Prince of Wales ascends to the throne as George II1746The final Jacobite rising is crushed at the Battle of Culloden.1760George II dies, and his grandson George, Prince of Wales ascends to the throne as George III, since his father, Frederick, Prince of Wales, had died in March 1751.1763Britain is victorious in the Seven Years War. The Treaty of Paris of 1763 grants Britain domain over vast new territories around the world.1765The Stamp Act is passed by the Parliament of Great Britain, causing much unrest in the Thirteen Colonies in North America.1770Australia is claimed as a British colony.1775The War of Independence begins in the Thirteen Colonies, specifically in Massachusetts.1776The Thirteen Colonies in North America declare their independence from the British Crown and British Parliament.1781The British Army in America under Lord Cornwallis surrenders to George Washington after its defeat in Yorktown, Virginia in October 1781.1783British formally recognises the independence of the original 13 American States when the Treaty of Paris of 1783 is signed by David Hartley, representing George III, and by the American treaty delegation.1788Australia is settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January.1801The Act of Union 1800 comes into effect on 1 January, uniting the Kingdoms of Great Britain and of Ireland into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland1811George, Prince of Wales begins his nine-year period as the regent (he became known as George, Prince Regent) for George III, who has become delusional. This sub-period of the Georgian Era is defined as the regency period.1815Napoleon I of France is defeated by the Seventh Coalition under The Duke of Wellington at the Battle of Waterloo, in what is now Wallonia, Belgium.1819The Peterloo Massacre occurs.1820George III dies, and his son George, Prince Regent ascends to the throne of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland as George IV.1830George IV dies. According to some authorities, this is the end of the Georgian era of the House of Hannover. However, many other authorities continue this era during the relatively short reign of his brother, The Prince William, Duke of Clarence, who became William IV.1833Slavery Abolition Act is passed by Parliament through the influence of William Wilberforce and the Evangelical movement, thus criminalizing the African slave trade and all its cruelties and abominations within the British Empire.1837William IV dies, ending the Georgian Era, and is succeeded by his niece, Queen Victoria, the last member of the House of Hanover. She married Prince Albert, who was of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, and so, when their son Albert Edward, Prince of Wales succeeded as Edward VII, that House gained the British throne.
GeorgeIKneller1714.jpg KING GEORGE II.jpg George III in Coronation edit.jpg George IV bust1.jpg
George I George II George III George IV
##Kingdom of Great Britain
##18th century Britain
##Holmes, Richard. The Age of Wonder: How the Romantic Generation Discovered the Beauty and Terror of Science (2009)
##Boyd, Hilton. A Mad, Bad, and Dangerous People?: England 1783-1846 (2008) 783pp
##Briggs, Asa. The making of modern England, 1783-1867: The age of the improvement (1959)
##Evans, E.J. Britain before the Reform Act: politics and society 1815-1832 (1989)
##Gould, Eliga H. "American independence and Britain's counter-revolution," Past & Present (1997) #154 pp 107–41
##Hochschild, Adam. Bury the Chains, The British Struggle to Abolish Slavery (Basingstoke: Pan Macmillan, 2005)
##Mokyr, Joel. The Enlightened Economy: An Economic History of Britain 1700-1850 (2010)
##Phillips, Charles. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Kings and Queens of Britain. London: Hermes House (Arness Publishing), 2006 ISBN 0-681-45961-1
##Turner, M.J. The Age of Unease: government and reform in Britain, 1782-1832 (2000)
##Watson J. Steven. The Reign of George III: 1760-1815 (1960)
##Williams, Basil. The Whig Supremacy 1714-1760 (1939) online edition
##Woodward; E. L. The Age of Reform, 1815-1870, (1938) online edition
Note: In the twentieth century, the period 1910–1936 was informally called the Georgian Era during the reign of George V (following the Edwardian Era), and is sometimes still referred to as such.; see Georgian Poetry.
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King of Great Britain and Ireland later
King of the United Kingdom and of Hanover (more...)
Reign 25 October 1760 – 29 January 1820
Coronation 22 September 1761
Predecessor George II
Successor George IV
Regent George, Prince Regent (1811–1820)
Consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Prince Frederick, Duke of York
Charlotte, Princess Royal, Queen of Württemberg
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent
Princess Augusta Sophia
Princess Elizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex
Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester
George William Frederick
House House of Hanover
Father Frederick, Prince of Wales
Mother Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Born 4 June 1738 [N.S.]
Norfolk House, St. James's Square, London
Died 29 January 1820 (aged 81)
Burial 16 February 1820
St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle
English, Scottish and British monarchs
Monarchs of England before 1603 Monarchs of Scotland before 1603
Æthelstan Edmund the Magnificent Eadred Eadwig Edgar the Peaceful Edward the Martyr Æthelred the Unready Sweyn Forkbeard Edmund Ironside Cnut the Great Harold Harefoot Harthacnut Edward the Confessor Harold Godwinson Edgar the Ætheling William I William II Henry I Stephen Matilda Henry II Henry the Young King Richard I John Henry III Edward I Edward II Edward III Richard II Henry IV Henry V Henry VI Edward IV Edward V Richard III Henry VII Henry VIII Edward VI Jane Mary I and Philip Elizabeth I
Kenneth I MacAlpin Donald I Constantine I Áed Giric Eochaid Donald II Constantine II Malcolm I Indulf Dub Cuilén Amlaíb Kenneth II Constantine III Kenneth III Malcolm II Duncan I Macbeth Lulach Malcolm III Canmore Donald III Duncan II Donald III Edgar Alexander I David I Malcolm IV William I Alexander II Alexander III Margaret First Interregnum John Second Interregnum Robert I David II Edward Robert II Robert III James I James II James III James IV James V Mary I James VI
Monarchs of England and Scotland after the Union of the Crowns in 1603
James I & VI Charles I Commonwealth Charles II James II & VII Mary II and William III & II Anne
British monarchs after the Acts of Union 1707
Anne George I George II George III George IV William IV Victoria Edward VII George V Edward VIII George VI Elizabeth II
Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics.
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King George II
Prince Frederick, Prince of Wales Prince George William Prince William, Duke of Cumberland
King George III Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany Prince William, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn Prince Frederick
King George IV Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany King William IV Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn King Ernest Augustus I of Hanover Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge Prince Octavius Prince Alfred Prince William, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh
Prince Albert, Prince Consort King George V of Hanover Prince George, Duke of Cambridge
King Edward VII Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany Prince Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover
Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale King George V Prince John of Wales Prince Alfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Arthur of Connaught Prince Charles Edward, Duke of Albany and of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince George William of Hanover Prince Christian of Hanover Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick
King Edward VII King George VI Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester Prince George, Duke of Kent Prince John Alastair Windsor, 2nd Duke of Connaught and Strathearn John Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Hubertus of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover Prince George William of Hanover
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh Prince William of Gloucester Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester Prince Edward, Duke of Kent Prince Michael of Kent
Prince Charles, Prince of Wales Prince Andrew, Duke of York Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge Prince Harry of Wales James, Viscount Severn
1 Not a British prince by birth, but created Prince Consort. 2 Not a British prince by birth, but created a Prince of the United Kingdom.
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Edward (1301–1307) Edward (1343–1376) Richard (1376–1377) Henry (1399–1413) Edward (1454–1471) Edward (1471–1483) Edward (1483–1484) Arthur (1489–1502) Henry (1504–1509) Edward (1537–1547) Henry (1610–1612) Charles (1616–1625) Charles (1641–1649) James (1688) George (1714–1727) Frederick (1729–1751) George (1751–1760) George (1762–1820) Albert Edward (1841–1901) George (1901–1910) Edward (1910–1936) Charles (1958–present)
See also: Prince of Wales's feathers
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Millennium: 2nd millennium
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1806 in other calendars Gregorian calendar 1806
Ab urbe condita 2559
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British Regnal year 46 Geo. 3 – 47 Geo. 3
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1806
Year 1806 (MDCCCVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar.
January 1 – Kingdom of Bavaria established by Napoleon.
January 5 – The body of Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, lies in state in the Painted Hall of the Greenwich Hospital prior to his funeral.
January 8 – Cape Colony becomes a British colony.
January 9 – Lord Nelson is given a state funeral at St Paul's Cathedral, attended by the Prince of Wales.
January 10 – The Dutch in Cape Town surrender to the British.
January 19 – The British occupy the Cape of Good Hope.
January 23 – Grenville succeeds William Pitt the Younger as wartime Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, upon Pitt's death this day amidst worsening health caused by the stresses of the Napoleonic Wars.
February 6 – The Royal Navy gains a victory off Santo Domingo (see Action of 6 February 1806).
March 23 – After traveling through the Louisiana Purchase and reaching the Pacific Ocean, explorers Lewis and Clark and their Corps of Discovery begin their journey home.
March 28 – Washington College (now Washington & Jefferson College) is chartered by the Pennsylvania General Assembly.
March 29 – Construction is authorized of the National Road (the first United States federal highway).
April 8 – Stephanie de Beauharnais, adopted daughter of Napoleon Bonaparte, marries Prince Karl Ludwig Friedrich of Baden.
May 30 – Andrew Jackson kills a man in a duel after the man had accused Jackson's wife of bigamy.
June 5 – Louis Bonaparte is appointed as King of Holland by his brother, Emperor Napoleon I.
Battle of Maida: Britain defeats the French in Calabria.
The legendary ship The Irish Rover sets sail from the Cove of Cork, Ireland for New York.
July 10 – Vellore Mutiny, the first mutiny by Indian sepoys against the British East India Company.
July 12 – Sixteen German Imperial States leave the Holy Roman Empire and form the Confederation of the Rhine, Liechtenstein being given full sovereignty.
July 15 – Pike expedition: Near St. Louis, Missouri, United States Army Lieutenant Zebulon Pike leads an expedition from Fort Bellefontaine to explore the west.
July 23 – A British expeditionary force of 1,700 men landed on the left bank of the Río de la Plata and invested Buenos Aires.
August – English seal hunter Abraham Bristow discovers the Auckland Islands.
August 6 – Francis II, the last Holy Roman Emperor, abdicates, thus ending the Holy Roman Empire after about a millennium.
September – Prussia declares war on France, and is joined by Saxony and other minor German states.
September 23 – The Lewis and Clark Expedition reaches St. Louis, Missouri, ending a successful exploration of the Louisiana Territory and the Pacific Northwest.
October 9 – Battle of Schleiz: First clash of the Franco-Prussian conflict. The Prussian army is easily defeated by a more numerous French force.
October 14 – Battle of Jena-Auerstädt: Napoleon defeats the Prussian army of Prince Hohenlohe at Jena while Marshal Davout defeats the main Prussian army under the Duke of Brunswick, who is killed.
October 17 – Emperor Jacques I of Haiti (Jean-Jacques Dessalines) is assassinated at the Pont-Rouge, Haiti, and Alexandre Pétion becomes first President of the Republic of Haiti.
October 24 – French forces enter Berlin.
October 30 – Capitulation of Stettin: Believing themselves massively outnumbered, the 5,300-man garrison at Stettin in Prussia surrenders to a much smaller French force without a fight.
November – Napoleon declares a Continental Blockade against the British.
November 15 – Pike expedition: During his second exploratory expedition, Lieutenant Zebulon Pike sees a distant mountain peak while near the Colorado foothills of the Rocky Mountains (later named Pikes Peak in his honor).
November 24 – The last major Prussian field force, under Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, surrenders to the French near Lübeck. Frederick William III has by this time fled to Russia.
November 28 – French troops enter Warsaw.
December 26 – 1806 Battles of Pultusk and Golymin. Battle of Pultusk: Russian forces under General Bennigsen narrowly escape from a direct confrontation with Napoleon, who goes into winter quarters. Battle of Golymin: Russian forces under General Golitsyn fight a successful rearguard action against French forces under Marshall Murat.
Noah Webster publishes his first American English dictionary.
Section of a frieze from the Elgin Marbles.
Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin, removes the Elgin Marbles from the Parthenon in Athens.
Annual British iron production reaches 260,000 tons.
January 1 – Lionel Kieseritzky, Baltic German chess player (d. 1853)
January 27 – Juan Crisóstomo Arriaga, Spanish composer (d. 1826)
February 22 – Józef Kremer, Polish messianic philosopher (d. 1875)
March 6 – Elizabeth Barrett Browning, English poet (d. 1861)
March 12 – Jane Pierce, First Lady of the United States (d. 1863)
March 21 – Benito Juárez, Mexican statesman and folk hero (d. 1872)
April 3 – Ivan Kireevsky, Russian literary critic and philosopher (d. 1856)
April 6 – Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl, German scholar (d. 1876)
April 9 – Isambard Kingdom Brunel, British engineer (d. 1859)
May 2 – Catherine Labouré, French visionary and saint (d. 1876)
May 20 – John Stuart Mill, British philosopher (d. 1873)
June 12 – John Augustus Roebling, German-born engineer (d. 1869)
June 28 – Napoleon Coste, French guitarist and composer (d. 1883)
July 5 – James Dawson, Aboriginal Guardian (d. 1900)
September 12 – Andrew Hull Foote, American admiral (d. 1863)
October 3 – Oliver Cowdery, American religious leader (d. 1850)
December 11 – Otto Wilhelm Hermann von Abich, German geologist (d. 1886)
Edward Welch, Welsh architect (d. 1868)
January 23 – William Pitt the Younger, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1759)
February 2 – Rétif de la Bretonne, French writer (b. 1734)
February 16 – Franz von Weyrother, Austrian general (b. 1755)
February 19 – Elizabeth Carter, English writer (b. 1717)
February 20 – Lachlan McIntosh, Scottish-born American military and political leader (b. 1725)
March 23 – George Pinto English composer (b. 1785)
March 30 – Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire (b. 1757)
April 9 – William V of Orange (b. 1748)
April 22 – Pierre-Charles Villeneuve, French admiral (stabbed) (b. 1763)
May 9 – Robert Morris (financier), Financier of the American Revolution (b. 1734)
May 24 – John Campbell, 5th Duke of Argyll, British field marshal (b. 1723)
June 23 – Mathurin Jacques Brisson, French naturalist (b. 1723)
July 10 – George Stubbs, English painter (b. 1724)
July 11 – James Smith, American signer of the United States Declaration of Independence
August 10 – Michael Haydn, Austrian composer (b. 1737)
August 22 – Jean-Honoré Fragonard, French painter (b. 1742)
August 23 – Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, French physicist (b. 1736)
September 9 – William Paterson, signer of the United States Constitution, Governor of New Jersey (b. 1745)
October 9 – Benjamin Banneker, American astronomer and surveyor (b. 1731)
October 10 – Louis Ferdinand of Prussia, German prince (killed in battle) (b. 1772)
October 25 – Henry Knox, Secretary of War under George Washington (b. 1750)
November 23 – Roger Newdigate, British politician (b. 1719)
December 22 – William Vernon, American merchant (b. 1719)
Mungo Park, Scottish explorer (b. 1771)