George III Old Token Coin with the Gold Lustre
Has the words "In Memory of the Good Old Days" & "1788"
It is 20mm in Diameter
In Very Good Condition for its age
Would make an Excellent Gift or Collectable Keepsake souvineer
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In 1727 George II ascended the throne, where he was to remain until 1760. While for the sixpence and larger silver coins an older bust of the king was used from 1743 onwards, the small silver coins continued to use a young portrait of him throughout his reign. The penny had a left-facing bust of George II and the inscription GEORGIVS II DEI GRATIA continuing onto the other side with MAG BRI FR ET HIB REX date around the crowned "I". Pennies were minted in 1729, 1731, 1732, 1735, 1737, 1739, 1740, 1743, 1746, 1750, 1752–1760. For seven of the eight years between 1750 and 1758 the silver penny was the only one of the small silver coins (1d, 2d, 3d, 4d) produced; this fact, coupled with the good condition of most pennies of those years which have come to our time, suggests that they were mainly used for Maundy money.
In the long reign of King George III, (1760–1820), the design of the silver penny changed subtly several times, with three obverses and five reverses. No silver pennies were minted at all between 1800 and 1817. The first obverse, showing a right-facing bust of the king, with the inscription GEORGIVS III DEI GRATIA, was used in 1763, 1766, 1770, 1772, 1776, 1779, 1780, 1781, 1784, and 1786; the second obverse, showing an older bust of the king and the same inscription, was used in 1792, 1795, and 1800, while the third, laureated bust of the king with the inscription GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA date was used in 1817, 1818 and 1820. The first reverse, used until 1780, showed the crowned "I" in high relief, with the inscription MAG BRI FR ET HIB REX date across the crown; the second reverse, used until 1786, was similar but in lower relief, the "I" being much flatter; the third reverse, used in 1792 only, was completely redesigned with a much smaller "I" under a smaller crown with the inscription running around the crown, with the same legend as before. The fourth reverse, used in 1795 and 1800 was similar to the first but with a redesigned crown. The fifth reverse, used from 1817 onwards, showed the crowned "I" with the inscription BRITANNIARUM REX FID DEF date. From 1817 onwards, the diameter of the coin was reduced from 14 to 11 millimetres, although the weight remained the same.
By the start of the reign of George IV (1820–1830) the silver penny was exclusively being used for Maundy money, for which purpose it is still being coined today. For the further history of the silver penny from 1822 to date, please see Maundy money.
Reverses of (left) a "cartwheel" penny of 1797; (right) a penny of 1967
As can be seen from the minting dates given above, there was a great shortage of government-issued small change in George III's reign. The situation was so bad that a great many merchants and mining companies issued their own copper tokens e.g. the Parys Mining Company on Anglesey issued huge numbers of tokens, although their acceptability was strictly limited. In 1797 Matthew Boulton was authorised by the government to strike copper pennies and twopences at his Soho Mint, in Birmingham; the time was not yet right for a token coinage, so they actually had to contain one or two pence worth of copper, i.e. they weighed one and two ounces each (penny — 28.3 grams, diameter 36 millimetres). The large size of the coins, combined with the thick rim where the inscription was incuse i.e. punched into the metal rather than standing proud of it, led to the coins being nicknamed Cartwheels. (If this sounds unwieldy, compare it to the Swedish 8 Daler plate money piece of the mid-17th century, which contained 35 kilograms of copper! Unsurprisingly, Sweden became the first European country to issue paper money, in 1661). The obverse of the Cartwheel coinage is a rather fine laureated right-facing bust of George III, with the inscription GEORGIUS III D G REX, while the reverse showed the seated Britannia, facing left, holding an olive branch and trident with the inscription BRITANNIA 1797 — although it appears that coins were minted for several years, but all with the 1797 date.
In 1806 and 1807, another 150 tons of copper was coined into pennies at the Soho Mint, although this time the money was a token coinage with each penny only containing 18.9 grams of copper and being 34 millimetres in diameter. These were more conventionally-designed coins, with a right facing bust of the king and ordinary inscription GEORGIUS III D G REX date, and the obverse showing the seated Britannia facing left, with olive branch and trident and the inscription BRITANNIA. There is one unique penny coin known which is dated 1808, but this is thought to have been a proof.
At the beginning of the Great Recoinage of 1816 only silver coins were produced. The copper penny was only minted in three years, 1825–7, and the minting of copper coins in 1825 was only authorised on 14 November of that year. The entire mintage consignment of 1827 pennies was allocated for despatch to Australia for the prison camps (Botany Bay Penal Colony). The shipment of coins (they were held in wooden crates) became badly corroded by salt water with literally only a handful surviving undamaged. Most suffered from corrosion and verdigris. It is because of this that the 1827 copper penny is extremely rare in mint state with only 2 known worldwide despite nearly 1.5 million struck.
The obverse of George IV's penny shows a rather fine left-facing laureated head engraved by William Wyon after the king expressed a dislike for the one engraved by Benedetto Pistrucci which was used on the farthing, inscribed GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA date, while the reverse shows a right-facing seated Britannia with a shield and trident, inscribed BRITANNIAR REX FID DEF. The penny at this time weighed 18.8 grams and had a diameter of 34 millimetres.
The pennies of King William IV (1830–1837) are very similar to his predecessors', also being engraved by William Wyon. The king's head faces right, inscribed GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA date, while the reverse is identical to the George IV penny. Pennies were minted in 1831, 1834, and 1837 (there is a report of a single example dated 1836, but this is regarded as semi-mythical). The small mintages of William's pennies makes finding a nice one very difficult.
At the Soho Mint, James Watt and Matthew Boulton used their steam-powered coin presses to make twopence coins in addition to the "cartwheel" pennies described above. These 2d coins weigh exactly 2 ounces (56.699 g), making them the heaviest British coins for ordinary circulation, and are approximately 41 millimetres (1.6 in) diameter by 5 millimetres (0.20 in) thick. 722,160 were minted, all bearing the 1797 date. The obverse reads GEORGIUS III • D:G • REX. and the reverse BRITANNIA. 1797
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of these two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg ("Hanover") in the Holy Roman Empire until his promotion to King of Hanover on 12 October 1814. He was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, but unlike his two Hanoverian predecessors he was born in Britain, spoke English as his first language, and never visited Hanover.
His life and reign, which were longer than those of any previous British monarch, were marked by a series of military conflicts involving his kingdoms, much of the rest of Europe, and places farther afield in Africa, the Americas and Asia. Early in his reign, Great Britain defeated France in the Seven Years' War, becoming the dominant European power in North America and India. However, many of its American colonies were soon lost in the American War of Independence. Further wars against revolutionary and Napoleonic France from 1793 concluded in the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.
In the later part of his life, George III suffered from recurrent, and eventually permanent, mental illness. Medical practitioners were baffled by this at the time, although it has since been suggested that he suffered from the blood disease porphyria. After a final relapse in 1810, a regency was established, and George III's eldest son, George, Prince of Wales, ruled as Prince Regent. On George III's death, the Prince Regent succeeded his father as George IV.
Historical analysis of George III's life has gone through a "kaleidoscope of changing views" that have depended heavily on the prejudices of his biographers and the sources available to them. Until re-assessment occurred during the second half of the twentieth century, his reputation in America was one of a tyrant and in Britain he became "the scapegoat for the failure of imperialism". He is often remembered as "The Mad King" and "The King Who Lost America"
King of Great Britain and Ireland later
King of the United Kingdom and of Hanover (more...)
Reign 25 October 1760 – 29 January 1820
Coronation 22 September 1761
Predecessor George II
Successor George IV
Regent George, Prince Regent (1811–1820)
Consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Prince Frederick, Duke of York
Charlotte, Princess Royal, Queen of Württemberg
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent
Princess Augusta Sophia
Princess Elizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex
Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester
George William Frederick
House House of Hanover
Father Frederick, Prince of Wales
Mother Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Born 4 June 1738 [N.S.]
Norfolk House, St. James's Square, London
Died 29 January 1820 (aged 81)
Burial 16 February 1820
St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle
English, Scottish and British monarchs
Monarchs of England before 1603 Monarchs of Scotland before 1603
Æthelstan Edmund the Magnificent Eadred Eadwig Edgar the Peaceful Edward the Martyr Æthelred the Unready Sweyn Forkbeard Edmund Ironside Cnut the Great Harold Harefoot Harthacnut Edward the Confessor Harold Godwinson Edgar the Ætheling William I William II Henry I Stephen Matilda Henry II Henry the Young King Richard I John Henry III Edward I Edward II Edward III Richard II Henry IV Henry V Henry VI Edward IV Edward V Richard III Henry VII Henry VIII Edward VI Jane Mary I and Philip Elizabeth I
Kenneth I MacAlpin Donald I Constantine I Áed Giric Eochaid Donald II Constantine II Malcolm I Indulf Dub Cuilén Amlaíb Kenneth II Constantine III Kenneth III Malcolm II Duncan I Macbeth Lulach Malcolm III Canmore Donald III Duncan II Donald III Edgar Alexander I David I Malcolm IV William I Alexander II Alexander III Margaret First Interregnum John Second Interregnum Robert I David II Edward Robert II Robert III James I James II James III James IV James V Mary I James VI
Monarchs of England and Scotland after the Union of the Crowns in 1603
James I & VI Charles I Commonwealth Charles II James II & VII Mary II and William III & II Anne
British monarchs after the Acts of Union 1707
Anne George I George II George III George IV William IV Victoria Edward VII George V Edward VIII George VI Elizabeth II
Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics.
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The generations indicate descent from George I, who formalised the use of the titles prince and princess for members of the British Royal Family.
King George II
Prince Frederick, Prince of Wales Prince George William Prince William, Duke of Cumberland
King George III Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany Prince William, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn Prince Frederick
King George IV Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany King William IV Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn King Ernest Augustus I of Hanover Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge Prince Octavius Prince Alfred Prince William, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh
Prince Albert, Prince Consort King George V of Hanover Prince George, Duke of Cambridge
King Edward VII Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany Prince Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover
Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale King George V Prince John of Wales Prince Alfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Arthur of Connaught Prince Charles Edward, Duke of Albany and of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince George William of Hanover Prince Christian of Hanover Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick
King Edward VII King George VI Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester Prince George, Duke of Kent Prince John Alastair Windsor, 2nd Duke of Connaught and Strathearn John Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Hubertus of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover Prince George William of Hanover
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh Prince William of Gloucester Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester Prince Edward, Duke of Kent Prince Michael of Kent
Prince Charles, Prince of Wales Prince Andrew, Duke of York Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge Prince Harry of Wales James, Viscount Severn
1 Not a British prince by birth, but created Prince Consort. 2 Not a British prince by birth, but created a Prince of the United Kingdom.
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See also: Prince of Wales's feathers
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Rulers of Hanover
Electors of Hanover
Ernest Augustus (Elector-designate) George I Louis* George II* George III*
Kings of Hanover
George III* George IV* William IV* Ernest Augustus I George V
* Also monarch of Great Britain or the United Kingdom.
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