has hosted the Olympic Games on two past occasions, in 1908 and 1948,
with a third scheduled for 2012. The planned 2012 Summer Olympics will
make London the first city to have hosted the modern Games of three
Olympiads. London is the only city in the United Kingdom to have ever
hosted the Olympics; the United States is the only country to have
hosted Summer Olympics on more occasions than the UK. No city in the UK
has hosted the Winter Olympic Games.
British participation in
Olympic events, both as a competitor and as a host, is the
responsibility of the British Olympic Association.
2012 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXX
Olympiad or "London 2012 Olympic Games", are scheduled to take place in
London, England, United Kingdom from 27 July to 12 August 2012.
London will become the first city to officially host the modern Olympic
Games three times, having previously done so in 1908 and in
London was selected as the host city on 6 July
2005 during the 117th IOC Session Session in Singapore, defeating
Moscow, New York City, Madrid and Paris after four rounds of voting.
The successful bid was headed by former Olympic champion Sebastian Lord
The Olympics prompted a redevelopment of many of the
areas of London in which the games are to be held particularly themed
towards sustainability. While the budgetary considerations have
generated some criticism, the Games will make use of many venues
which were already in place before the bid, including Wembley Stadium,
Wembley Arena, Wimbledon All England Club, Lord's Cricket Ground, The O2
Arena, Earls Court Exhibition Centre, Weymouth and Portland National
Sailing Academy, and the Excel Centre.
Top Greatest Olympians of All-Time
is no particular order to the list. It is a listing of the best olympic
athletes and sports competitors in the history of the Modern Summer and
Winter Olympic Games (1896-present).
Mark Spitz (USA). Spitz is
tied for the most gold medals collected in the history of the Olympics.
And he won 7 gold medals at the 1972 Olympics, also an all-time record
Comaneci (Romania). The Romanian gymnast has won 5 gold medals and 9
total. Comanechi is essentially the definition of 'Perfect 10'. The
Olympic scoreboard wasn't even capable of displaying a '10', and all of
that changed after Nadia.
Larisa Semyonovna Latynina (Soviet
Union). Arguably the best athlete in the history of the Olympics.
Latynina won a total of 18 medals including 9 golds in her Olympic
Nikolay Andrianov (Soviet Union). Won 15 medals in his career.
Alexei Nemov (Russia). Nemov won 6 medals in Atlanta in 1996 and won another 6 in Sydney in 2000.
Ono (Japan). Ono won a total of 13 medals. He won his first at the 1952
Olympics and won a team gold at the 1964 Olympic games.
Mangiarotti (Italy). A fencing world champion for decades. Mangiarotti
won a total of 13 Olympic medals in his lifetime.
(Soviet Union). Between 1956 and 1964 Shakhlin won 13 different Olympic
medals in gymnastics. His best event was the pommelled horse.
Paavo Nurmi (Finland). Finland's Paavo Nurni won a total of 9 Olympic gold medals as a runner in the 1920's.
Kato (Japan). Competed in gymnastic events in the 1968, 1972, and 1976
Olympics winning a total of 12 medals, 8 of them gold.
(USA). The best and most memorable athlete from the very first modern
Olympic games. Ewry won 8 gold medals right around the turn of the
century. He won 2 more, but they were at the 1906 'Intermediate' Games,
which are not official.
Matthew Biondi (USA). One of the
U.S.A.'s best Olympic athletes ever. Biondi won 11 total medals. The
first coming in 1984, and his last Olympic medal in 1992. He was at his
prime in the 1998 Summer Olympics winning 5 gold medals.
Carl Lewis (USA). He's got his own flashy web site. Enough said.
Chukarin (Soviet Union). Won 11 medals total after competing in both
the 1952 and 1956 Olympics. Seven of Chukarin's gymnastic medals were
Vera Caslavska (Czechoslovokia). A sensational gymnast
(Vera won 11 medals in 1964 and 1968) and a remarkable life story (those
were challenging times in Czechoslovokia).
Kristin Otto (Germany). Won 6 gold medals in swimming at the 1988 Olympics-- which was a record for women.
Michael Phelps (United States). In the 2004 summer olympics, Michael Phelps won 8 medals in swimming, including 6 gold medals.
Swahn (Sweden). Won a medal at the 1920 Olympics, at the age of 72. The
oldest athlete ever to win a medal at the Olympics.
Owens. American, and African-American, Jesse Owens went to the 1936
Olympics held in Hitler's Germany. And Owens won, a then record, 4 gold
medals in track and field.
Torvill and Dean (UK). Britains
famed Torvill and Dean (Jayne Torvill and Christopher Dean) won the
ice dancing pairs competition. They stand alone as among the top
performers in the history of pairs figure skating.
(USA). Moses was one of the best athletes in the history of the 400
meter hurdles in and out of Olympic competition. In 1976, he won the
event going away. He won over 100 consecutive events leading up to his
next Olympic event in 1984. And, despite recovering from an injury, won
the race in front of the home crowd.
Greg Louganis (USA).
Louganis won his first Olympic medal in 1976 at the age of 16. But he
had to wait until 1984 to return to the Olympics due to the U.S. boycott
of the Moscow Games in 1980. He won two golds in 1984 and two more in
1988. His 1988 victory is remembered because Louganis had an accident
where he hit the board in preliminary competition. Had the United States
participated in the 1980 Olympics, Louganis would surely have won
Olga Korbut (Soviet Union). Voted Female
Athlete of the Year in 1972 by the AP. She was widely popular around the
globe for her wide, big, bright smile. She won 3 gold medals and a
silver medal at the Munich Summer Olympics.
Alberto Tomba (Italy). Tomba is without question the best downhill skier in the history of Italy. He won medals in 1988 and 1994
help fund the cost of staging the games the London Olympic organisers
have agreed partnership deals with major companies. The companies have
signed up into four categories; worldwide, tier one, tier two and tier
Dow Chemical Company
Procter & Gamble
As of 9 September 2011, 44 companies have signed up for domestic sponsorship roles.
Domestic tier one partners:
Domestic tier two supporters:
Thomas Cook Group
United Parcel Service
Domestic tier three providers and suppliers:
Boston Consulting Group
Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer LLP
Mondo[disambiguation needed ]
The Nielsen Company
7 September 2011, the LOCOG announced that they had reached their £700
million domestic sponsorship target. They signed their 44th partner
Westfield shopping centres who signed as a tier three sponsor
Sports Venues Ceremonies Medals Medal tables Medalists IOC NOCs Symbols
1900 1904 19061 1908 1912 19162 1920 1924 1928 1932 1936 19403 19443
1948 1952 1956 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000
2004 2008 2012 2016 2020 2024 2028
1928 1932 1936 19403 19443 1948 1952 1956 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980
1984 1988 1992 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 2014 2018 2022
1 Discounted ex post facto by the IOC. 2 Cancelled due to World War I. 3 Cancelled due to World War II.
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Nations at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom
Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde Central
African Republic Chad Comoros Congo DR Congo Cτte d'Ivoire Djibouti
Egypt Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea
Guinea-Bissau Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali
Mauritania Mauritius Morocco Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Rwanda Sγo
Tomι-Prνncipe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa
Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Tunisia Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe
Argentina Aruba Bahamas Barbados Belize Bermuda Bolivia Brazil British
Virgin Islands Canada Cayman Islands Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba
Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Guyana
Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Puerto
Rico Saint Kitts-Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent-Grenadines Suriname
Trinidad-Tobago United States Uruguay Venezuela Virgin Islands
Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Cambodia China Hong Kong India
Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan North Korea South
Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar
Nepal Oman Pakistan Palestine Philippines Qatar Saudi Arabia Singapore
Sri Lanka Syria Chinese Taipei Tajikistan Thailand Timor-Leste
Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen
Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia-Herzegovina
Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France
Georgia Germany Great Britain Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel
Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova
Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San
Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine
Samoa Australia Cook Islands Fiji Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands
Micronesia Nauru New Zealand Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon
Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu
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Events at the 2012 Summer Olympics (London)
· Athletics · Badminton · Basketball · Boxing · Canoeing · Cycling ·
Diving · Equestrian · Fencing · Field hockey · Football · Gymnastics ·
Handball · Judo · Modern pentathlon · Rowing · Sailing · Shooting ·
Swimming · Synchronized swimming · Table tennis · Taekwondo · Tennis ·
Triathlon · Volleyball · Water polo · Weightlifting · Wrestling
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Venues of the 2012 Summer Olympics
Centre Basketball Arena BMX Circuit Eton Manor Copper Box London
Velodrome Olympic Stadium Riverbank Arena Water Polo Arena
ExCeL Greenwich Park North Greenwich Arena (The O2 arena) Royal Artillery Barracks
England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club Earls Court Exhibition Centre
Horse Guards Parade Hyde Park Lord's Cricket Ground Marathon Course
Regent's Park Wembley Arena Wembley Stadium
Dorney Lake Hadleigh Farm Lee Valley White Water Centre Weymouth and Portland National Sailing Academy
City of Coventry Stadium Hampden Park Millennium Stadium Old Trafford St James' Park
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History of London
Londinium Lundenwic City of London City of Westminster Middlesex County of London Greater London
London Anglo-Saxon London Norman and Medieval London Tudor London
Stuart London 18th century London 19th century London 19001939 The
Blitz 19452000 21st century
Revolt Black Death Great Plague Great Fire 1854 cholera outbreak Great
Stink Great Exhibition 1908 Franco-British Exhibition The Battle of
Cable Street Festival of Britain Great Smog Swinging London London Plan
7/7 bombings Olympic Games (1908 1948 2012)
Board of Works London County Council Greater London Council Greater
London Authority London Assembly Mayor of London
Street Runners Metropolitan Police Service London Ambulance Service
London Fire Brigade Port of London Authority London sewerage system
City of London
of London Corporation Lord Mayor of the City of London Wards of the
City of London Guildhall Livery Companies Lord Mayor's Show City of
London Police Bank of England
Paul's Cathedral Tower of London Palace of Whitehall Westminster Hall
London Bridge Tower Bridge Westminster Abbey Big Ben The Monument
Olympic host cities
City Country Continent Flag Olympiad No. Season Year From To Ref
Athens Greece Europe I Summer 1896 April 6 April 15 
Paris France Europe II Summer 1900 May 14 October 28 
St. Louis[a] United States North America III Summer 1904 July 1 November 23 
London[b] United Kingdom Europe IV Summer 1908 April 27 October 31 
Stockholm Sweden Europe V Summer 1912 May 5 July 27 
Berlin Germany Europe VI Summer 1916 Cancelled due to WWI
Antwerp Belgium Europe VII Summer 1920 April 20 September 12 
Chamonix France Europe I Winter 1924 January 25 February 4 
Paris France Europe VIII Summer 1924 May 4 July 27 
St. Moritz Switzerland Europe II Winter 1928 February 11 February 19 
Amsterdam Netherlands Europe IX Summer 1928 May 17 August 12 
Lake Placid United States North America III Winter 1932 February 4 February 15 
Los Angeles United States North America X Summer 1932 July 30 August 14 
Garmisch-Partenkirchen Germany Europe IV Winter 1936 February 6 February 16 
Berlin Germany Europe XI Summer 1936 August 1 August 16 
Sapporo Japan Asia V Winter 1940 Cancelled due to WWII
Tokyo Japan Asia XII Summer 1940 Cancelled due to WWII
Cortina d'Ampezzo Italy Europe V Winter 1944 Cancelled due to WWII
London United Kingdom Europe XIII Summer 1944 Cancelled due to WWII
St. Moritz Switzerland Europe V Winter 1948 January 30 February 8
London United Kingdom Europe XIV Summer 1948 July 29 August 14
Oslo Norway Europe VI Winter 1952 February 14 February 25
Helsinki Finland Europe XV Summer 1952 July 19 August 3
Cortina d'Ampezzo Italy Europe VII Winter 1956 January 26 February 5
XVI Summer 1956 November 22
June 10 December 8
Squaw Valley United States North America VIII Winter 1960 February 18 February 28
Rome Italy Europe XVII Summer 1960 August 25 September 11
Innsbruck Austria Europe IX Winter 1964 January 29 February 9
Tokyo Japan Asia XVIII Summer 1964 October 10 October 24
Grenoble France Europe X Winter 1968 February 6 February 18
Mexico City Mexico North America XIX Summer 1968 October 12 October 27
Sapporo Japan Asia XI Winter 1972 February 3 February 13
Munich West Germany Europe XX Summer 1972 August 26 September 11
Innsbruck Austria Europe XII Winter 1976 February 4 February 15
Montreal Canada North America XXI Summer 1976 July 17 August 1
Lake Placid United States North America XIII Winter 1980 February 14 February 23
Moscow Soviet Union Europe[d] XXII Summer 1980 July 19 August 3
Sarajevo Yugoslavia Europe XIV Winter 1984 February 7 February 19
Los Angeles United States North America XXIII Summer 1984 July 28 August 12
Calgary Canada North America XV Winter 1988 February 13 February 28
Seoul South Korea Asia XXIV Summer 1988 September 17 October 2
Albertville France Europe XVI Winter 1992 February 8 February 23
Barcelona Spain Europe XXV Summer 1992 July 25 August 9
Lillehammer Norway Europe XVII Winter 1994 February 12 February 27
Atlanta United States North America XXVI Summer 1996 July 19 August 4
Nagano Japan Asia XVIII Winter 1998 February 7 February 22
Sydney Australia Australia XXVII Summer 2000 September 15 October 1
Salt Lake City United States North America XIX Winter 2002 February 8 February 24
Athens Greece Europe XXVIII Summer 2004 August 13 August 29
Torino Italy Europe XX Winter 2006 February 10 February 26
Beijing[e] China Asia XXIX Summer 2008 August 8 August 24
Vancouver Canada North America XXI Winter 2010 February 12 February 28
London United Kingdom Europe XXX Summer 2012 July 27 August 12
Sochi Russia Europe[d] XXII Winter 2014 February 7 February 23
Rio de Janeiro Brazil South America XXXI Summer 2016 August 5 August 21
Pyeongchang South Korea Asia XXIII Winter 2018 February 9 February 25
Mountain biking is a sport which consists of riding bicycles off-road, often over rough terrain, using specially adapted mountain bikes. Mountain bikes share similarities with other bikes, but incorporate features designed to enhance durability and performance in rough terrain.
Mountain biking can generally be broken down into multiple categories: cross country (XC), trail riding, all mountain, downhill, freeride, slopestyle, dirt jumping and trials. The vast majority of mountain biking falls into the recreational XC, and Trail Riding categories.
This individual sport requires endurance, core strength and balance, bike handling skills, and self-reliance. Advanced riders pursue steep technical descents and, in the case of freeriding, downhilling, and dirt jumping, aerial maneuvers off of specially constructed jumps and ramps.
Mountain biking can be performed almost anywhere from a back yard to a gravel road, but the majority of mountain bikers ride off-road trails, whether country back roads, fire roads, or singletrack (narrow trails that wind through forests, mountains, deserts, or fields). There are aspects of mountain biking that are more similar to trail running than regular bicycling. Because riders are often far from civilization, there is a strong ethic of self-reliance in the sport. Riders learn to repair their broken bikes or flat tires to avoid being stranded miles from help. Many riders will carry a backpack, including a water bladder, containing all the essential tools and equipment for trailside repairs, and many riders also carry emergency supplies in the case of injury miles from outside help. Club rides and other forms of group rides are common, especially on longer treks. A combination sport named mountain bike orienteering adds the skill of map navigation to mountain biking.
Gloves differ from road touring gloves, are made of heavier construction, and often have covered thumbs or all fingers covered for hand protection. They are sometimes made with padding for the knuckles.
Glasses with little or no difference from those used in other cycling sports, help protect against debris while on the trail. Filtered lenses, whether yellow for cloudy days or shaded for sunny days, protect the eyes from strain. Downhill and freeride mountain bikers often use goggles similar to motorcross or snowboard goggles in unison with their fullface helmets.
Shoes generally have gripping soles similar to those of hiking boots for scrambling over un-ridable obstacles, unlike the smooth-bottomed shoes used in road cycling. The shank of mountain bike shoes is generally more flexible than road cycling shoes. Shoes compatible with clipless pedal systems are also frequently used.
Clothing is chosen for comfort during physical exertion in the backcountry, and its ability to withstand falls. Road touring clothes are often inappropriate due to their delicate fabrics and construction.
Hydration systems are important for mountain bikers in the backcountry, ranging from simple water bottles to water bags with drinking tubes in lightweight backpacks (e.g., Camelbaks).
GPS navigation device is sometimes added to the handlebars and is used to display and monitor progress on trails downloaded from the internet or pre-made mapping systems, record trails on the fly, and keep track of trip times and other data. The GPS system is often a handheld GPS device with color screen and rugged, waterproof (IPX7) design.
Pump to inflate flat tires.
Bike tools and extra bike tubes are important, as mountain bikers frequently find themselves miles from help, with flat tires or other mechanical problems that must be handled by the rider.
High-power lights based on LED technology, especially for mountain biking at night.
Accessible tourism Active travel Adjectival tourisms Adventure recreation Agritourism Backpacking (travel) Backpacking (wilderness) Bicycle touring Camping Ecotourism Extreme tourism Freighthopping Ghetto tourism Hang gliding Hiking Hitchhiking Migrating Jungle tourism Mountain biking Mountaineering Naked hiking Overland travel Overlanding Paragliding Rafting River trekking Rogaining Roguing Safari Tramping Travel Trek Ultralight backpacking Urban exploration Vagabonding Volunteer travel Wildlife tourism
Backpack Campsite Discovery Exploration Geocaching Google Maps Gypsy Hiking equipment Hobo Hospitality service Interpersonal relationship Itinerant living Lifestyle travelling Naturism Nomad Perpetual traveler Polyphasic sleep Sattvic diet Schengen Area Sleeping bag Sleeping pad Social photography Squatting Street people Swiss Army knife Ten Essentials Tramp Vagrancy Wanderlust
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Extreme and adventure sports
Bodyboarding Dirtsurfing Flowboarding Kitesurfing Longboarding Mountainboarding River surfing Riverboarding Sandboarding Skateboarding Skimboarding Skysurfing Snowboarding Snowskate Street luging Surfing Wakeboarding Windsurfing
Drifting Motocross Rallying Snocross Supercross
Coasteering Free-diving Jet Skiing Scuba diving Waterskiing Whitewater canoeing Whitewater kayaking Whitewater rafting
Bouldering Canyoning Free solo climbing Ice climbing Rock climbing Skyrunning
BASE jumping Bungee jumping Cliff diving Parachuting (skydiving) Wingsuit flying
Air racing Gliding Hang gliding Paragliding Powered paragliding Speed flying
BMX Caving Extreme skiing Freestyle scootering Freestyle skiing Inline skating Mountain biking Orienteering Paintball Parkour Powerbocking Slacklining Stunt pogoing Zip-lining